33 research outputs found

    High resolution copy number inference in cancer using short-molecule nanopore sequencing.

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    Genome copy number is an important source of genetic variation in health and disease. In cancer, Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) can be inferred from short-read sequencing data, enabling genomics-based precision oncology. Emerging Nanopore sequencing technologies offer the potential for broader clinical utility, for example in smaller hospitals, due to lower instrument cost, higher portability, and ease of use. Nonetheless, Nanopore sequencing devices are limited in the number of retrievable sequencing reads/molecules compared to short-read sequencing platforms, limiting CNA inference accuracy. To address this limitation, we targeted the sequencing of short-length DNA molecules loaded at optimized concentration in an effort to increase sequence read/molecule yield from a single nanopore run. We show that short-molecule nanopore sequencing reproducibly returns high read counts and allows high quality CNA inference. We demonstrate the clinical relevance of this approach by accurately inferring CNAs in acute myeloid leukemia samples. The data shows that, compared to traditional approaches such as chromosome analysis/cytogenetics, short molecule nanopore sequencing returns more sensitive, accurate copy number information in a cost effective and expeditious manner, including for multiplex samples. Our results provide a framework for short-molecule nanopore sequencing with applications in research and medicine, which includes but is not limited to, CNAs

    Replication timing maintains the global epigenetic state in human cells

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank R. Didier and B. Alexander of the FSU Flow Cytometry and Confocal Microscopy Facilities for their help with flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting for this project. Thanks to A. Brown of the FSU Biological Science Core Labs and to Y. Yang and C. Vied of the FSU Translational Labs. Thanks to S. R. Westermann of SCIGRAPHIX for generating the model figure. Thanks to B. van Steensel, J. Phillips-Cremins, and P. Fraser for critical reading of the manuscript. Funding: This work was supported by NIH grant GM083337 to D.M.G., GM035463 to V.G.C., and GM085354 to D.M.G., S.D., and V.G.C. D.L. is supported by the Hong Kong Research Grant Council (ECS 26104216). T.B. is supported by the William C. and Joyce C. O’Neil Charitable Trust, Memorial Sloan Kettering Single Cell Sequencing InitiativePeer reviewedPostprin

    Mcm2 hypomorph leads to acute leukemia or hematopoietic stem cell failure, dependent on genetic context

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    Minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) form a hexameric complex that unwinds DNA ahead of a replicative fork. The deficiency of Mcm proteins leads to replicative stress and consequent genomic instability. Mice with a germline insertion of a Cre cassette into the 3'UTR of the Mcm2 gene (designated Mcm2Cre ) have decreased Mcm2 expression and invariably develop precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pre-T LBL), due to 100-1000 kb deletions involving important tumor suppressor genes. To determine whether mice that were protected from pre-T LBL would develop non-T-cell malignancies, we used two approaches. Mice engrafted with Mcm2Cre/Cre Lin- Sca-1+ Kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells did not develop hematologic malignancy; however, these mice died of hematopoietic stem cell failure by 6 months of age. Placing the Mcm2Cre allele onto an athymic nu/nu background completely prevented pre-T LBL and extended survival of these mice three-fold (median 296.5 vs. 80.5 days). Ultimately, most Mcm2Cre/Cre ;nu/nu mice developed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). We identified recurrent deletions of 100-1000 kb that involved genes known or suspected to be involved in BCP-ALL, including Pax5, Nf1, Ikzf3, and Bcor. Moreover, whole-exome sequencing identified recurrent mutations of genes known to be involved in BCP-ALL progression, such as Jak1/Jak3, Ptpn11, and Kras. These findings demonstrate that an Mcm2Cre/Cre hypomorph can induce hematopoietic dysfunction via hematopoietic stem cell failure as well as a "deletor" phenotype affecting known or suspected tumor suppressor genes

    Senescence induction dictates response to chemo- and immunotherapy in preclinical models of ovarian cancer

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    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is a cancer with dismal prognosis due to the limited effectiveness of existing chemo- and immunotherapies. To elucidate mechanisms mediating sensitivity or resistance to these therapies, we developed a fast and flexible autochthonous mouse model based on somatic introduction of HGSOC-associated genetic alterations into the ovary of immunocompetent mice using tissue electroporation. Tumors arising in these mice recapitulate the metastatic patterns and histological, molecular, and treatment response features of the human disease. By leveraging these models, we show that the ability to undergo senescence underlies the clinically observed increase in sensitivity of homologous recombination (HR)-deficient HGSOC tumors to platinum-based chemotherapy. Further, cGas/STING-mediated activation of a restricted senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) was sufficient to induce immune infiltration and sensitize HR-deficient tumors to immune checkpoint blockade. In sum, our study identifies senescence propensity as a predictor of therapy response and defines a limited SASP profile that appears sufficient to confer added vulnerability to concurrent immunotherapy and, more broadly, provides a blueprint for the implementation of electroporation-based mouse models to reveal mechanisms of oncogenesis and therapy response in HGSOC

    Interactive analysis and quality assessment of single-cell copy-number variations

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    Single-cell sequencing is emerging as a critical technology for understanding the biology of cancer, neurons, and other complex systems. Here we introduce Ginkgo, a web platform for the interactive analysis and quality assessment of single-cell copy-number alterations. Ginkgo fully automates the process of binning, normalizing, and segmenting mapped reads to infer copy number profiles of individual cells, as well as constructing phylogenetic trees of how those cells are related. We validate Ginkgo by reproducing the results of five major single-cell studies, and discuss how it addresses the wide array of biases that affect single-cell analysis. We also examine the data characteristics of three commonly used single-cell amplification techniques: MDA, MALBAC, and DOP-PCR/WGA4 through comparative analysis of 9 different single-cell datasets. We conclude that DOP-PCR provides the most uniform amplification, while MDA introduces substantial biases into the analysis. Furthermore, given the same level of coverage, our results indicate that data prepared using DOP-PCR can reliably call CNVs at higher resolution than data prepared using either MALBAC or MDA. Ginkgo is freely available at http://qb.cshl.edu/ginkgo.Received November 11, 2014.Accepted November 12, 2014.© 2014, Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressThis pre-print is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International), CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

    Ordered and deterministic cancer genome evolution after p53 loss

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    Although p53 inactivation promotes genomic instability1 and presents a route to malignancy for more than half of all human cancers2,3, the patterns through which heterogenous TP53 (encoding human p53) mutant genomes emerge and influence tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. Here, in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma that reports sporadic p53 loss of heterozygosity before cancer onset, we find that malignant properties enabled by p53 inactivation are acquired through a predictable pattern of genome evolution. Single-cell sequencing and in situ genotyping of cells from the point of p53 inactivation through progression to frank cancer reveal that this deterministic behaviour involves four sequential phases-Trp53 (encoding mouse p53) loss of heterozygosity, accumulation of deletions, genome doubling, and the emergence of gains and amplifications-each associated with specific histological stages across the premalignant and malignant spectrum. Despite rampant heterogeneity, the deletion events that follow p53 inactivation target functionally relevant pathways that can shape genomic evolution and remain fixed as homogenous events in diverse malignant populations. Thus, loss of p53-the 'guardian of the genome'-is not merely a gateway to genetic chaos but, rather, can enable deterministic patterns of genome evolution that may point to new strategies for the treatment of TP53-mutant tumours

    Human OTULIN haploinsufficiency impairs cell-intrinsic immunity to staphylococcal alpha-toxin

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    The molecular basis of interindividual clinical variability upon infection with Staphylococcus aureus is unclear. We describe patients with haploinsufficiency for the linear deubiquitinase OTULIN, encoded by a gene on chromosome 5p. Patients suffer from episodes of life-threatening necrosis, typically triggered by S. aureus infection. The disorder is phenocopied in patients with the 5p- (Cri-du-Chat) chromosomal deletion syndrome. OTULIN haploinsufficiency causes an accumulation of linear ubiquitin in dermal fibroblasts, but tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated nuclear factor kappa B signaling remains intact. Blood leukocyte subsets are unaffected. The OTULIN-dependent accumulation of caveolin-1 in dermal fibroblasts, but not leukocytes, facilitates the cytotoxic damage inflicted by the staphylococcal virulence factor alpha-toxin. Naturally elicited antibodies against alpha-toxin contribute to incomplete clinical penetrance. Human OTULIN haploinsufficiency underlies life-threatening staphylococcal disease by disrupting cell-intrinsic immunity to alpha-toxin in nonleukocytic cells.Peer reviewe

    Transplantation of engineered organoids enables rapid generation of metastatic mouse models of colorectal cancer.

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    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death in the developed world, yet facile preclinical models that mimic the natural stages of CRC progression are lacking. Through the orthotopic engraftment of colon organoids we describe a broadly usable immunocompetent CRC model that recapitulates the entire adenoma-adenocarcinoma-metastasis axis in vivo. The engraftment procedure takes less than 5 minutes, shows efficient tumor engraftment in two-thirds of mice, and can be achieved using organoids derived from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), wild-type organoids engineered ex vivo, or from patient-derived human CRC organoids. In this model, we describe the genotype and time-dependent progression of CRCs from adenocarcinoma (6 weeks), to local disseminated disease (11-12 weeks), and spontaneous metastasis (>20 weeks). Further, we use the system to show that loss of dysregulated Wnt signaling is critical for the progression of disseminated CRCs. Thus, our approach provides a fast and flexible means to produce tailored CRC mouse models for genetic studies and pre-clinical investigation