129 research outputs found

    A Universal Bleeding Risk Score in Native and Allograft Kidney Biopsies: A French Nationwide Cohort Study

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    BackgroundThe risk of bleeding after percutaneous biopsy in kidney transplant recipients is usually low but may vary. A pre-procedure bleeding risk score in this population is lacking.MethodsWe assessed the major bleeding rate (transfusion, angiographic intervention, nephrectomy, hemorrhage/hematoma) at 8 days in 28,034 kidney transplant recipients with a kidney biopsy during the 2010-2019 period in France and compared them to 55,026 patients with a native kidney biopsy as controls.ResultsThe rate of major bleeding was low (angiographic intervention: 0.2%, hemorrhage/hematoma: 0.4%, nephrectomy: 0.02%, blood transfusion: 4.0%). A new bleeding risk score was developed (anemia = 1, female gender = 1, heart failure = 1, acute kidney failure = 2 points). The rate of bleeding varied: 1.6%, 2.9%, 3.7%, 6.0%, 8.0%, and 9.2% for scores 0 to 5, respectively, in kidney transplant recipients. The ROC AUC was 0.649 (0.634-0.664) in kidney transplant recipients and 0.755 (0.746-0.763) in patients who had a native kidney biopsy (rate of bleeding: from 1.2% for score = 0 to 19.2% for score = 5).ConclusionsThe risk of major bleeding is low in most patients but indeed variable. A new universal risk score can be helpful to guide the decision concerning kidney biopsy and the choice of inpatient vs. outpatient procedure both in native and allograft kidney recipients

    Predictors of acute ischemic cerebral lesions in immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome

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    International audienceBackground: The immune form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) and the hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) are two major forms of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Their treatment has been recently greatly improved. In this new era, both the prevalence and predictors of cerebral lesions occurring during the acute phase of these severe conditions remain poorly known.Aim: The prevalence and predictors of cerebral lesions appearing during the acute phase of iTTP and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-HUS or atypical HUS were evaluated in a prospective multicenter study.Methods: Univariate analysis was performed to report the main differences between patients with iTTP and those with HUS or between patients with acute cerebral lesions and the others. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the potential predictors of these lesions.Results: Among 73 TMA cases (mean age 46.9 ± 16 years (range 21-87 years) with iTTP (n = 57) or HUS (n = 16), one-third presented with acute ischemic cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imagery (MRI); two individuals also had hemorrhagic lesions. One in ten patients had acute ischemic lesions without any neurological symptom. The neurological manifestations did not differ between iTTP and HUS. In multivariable analysis, three factors predicted the occurrence of acute ischemic lesions on cerebral MRI: (1) the presence of old infarcts on cerebral MRI, (2) the level of blood pulse pressure, (3) the diagnosis of iTTP.Conclusion: At the acute phase of iTTP or HUS, both symptomatic and covert ischemic lesions are detected in one third of cases on MRI. Diagnosis of iTTP and the presence of old infarcts on MRI are associated with the occurrence of such acute lesions as well as increased blood pulse pressure, that may represent a potential target to further improve the therapeutic management of these conditions

    Les Nocturnes du Plan de Rome : Alix Barbet - Rome en couleurs

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    Le 1er FĂ©vrier 2023, dans le cadre du sĂ©minaire de l'ERLIS Les Nocturnes du Plan de Rome, a Ă©tĂ© donnĂ©e Ă  l'UniversitĂ© de Caen et uniquement en ligne, la confĂ©rence intitulĂ©e : Rome en couleurs par Alix Barbet. RĂ©sumĂ© de la confĂ©rence : Quasiment tous les types de bĂątiments Ă  Rome Ă©taient peints et pavĂ©s de mosaĂŻques ; il y a les balnĂ©aires, de trĂšs nombreuses maisons et villas, les palais impĂ©riaux et bien sĂ»r les tombes. Toutefois, n’oublions pas les façades des temples qui Ă©taient colorĂ©es et d’autres Ă©difices religieux. Les dĂ©cors ne se limitent pas aux parois mais ornent Ă©galement les voĂ»tes et les plafonds dont les couleurs vives font appel Ă  des pigments variĂ©s, certains luxueux, quand ce ne sont pas des feuilles d’or qui sont incrustĂ©es. Les motifs et les thĂšmes sont Ă©videmment choisis en adĂ©quation avec le type du bĂątiment et ont Ă©voluĂ© au cours des siĂšcles et leur redĂ©couverte, permet de restituer une Rome en couleurs, telle qu’on ne l’imaginait pas et qui continuera d’ĂȘtre en couleurs tout au long des siĂšcles

    The evolving SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Africa: Insights from rapidly expanding genomic surveillance

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    INTRODUCTION Investment in Africa over the past year with regard to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequencing has led to a massive increase in the number of sequences, which, to date, exceeds 100,000 sequences generated to track the pandemic on the continent. These sequences have profoundly affected how public health officials in Africa have navigated the COVID-19 pandemic. RATIONALE We demonstrate how the first 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from Africa have helped monitor the epidemic on the continent, how genomic surveillance expanded over the course of the pandemic, and how we adapted our sequencing methods to deal with an evolving virus. Finally, we also examine how viral lineages have spread across the continent in a phylogeographic framework to gain insights into the underlying temporal and spatial transmission dynamics for several variants of concern (VOCs). RESULTS Our results indicate that the number of countries in Africa that can sequence the virus within their own borders is growing and that this is coupled with a shorter turnaround time from the time of sampling to sequence submission. Ongoing evolution necessitated the continual updating of primer sets, and, as a result, eight primer sets were designed in tandem with viral evolution and used to ensure effective sequencing of the virus. The pandemic unfolded through multiple waves of infection that were each driven by distinct genetic lineages, with B.1-like ancestral strains associated with the first pandemic wave of infections in 2020. Successive waves on the continent were fueled by different VOCs, with Alpha and Beta cocirculating in distinct spatial patterns during the second wave and Delta and Omicron affecting the whole continent during the third and fourth waves, respectively. Phylogeographic reconstruction points toward distinct differences in viral importation and exportation patterns associated with the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants and subvariants, when considering both Africa versus the rest of the world and viral dissemination within the continent. Our epidemiological and phylogenetic inferences therefore underscore the heterogeneous nature of the pandemic on the continent and highlight key insights and challenges, for instance, recognizing the limitations of low testing proportions. We also highlight the early warning capacity that genomic surveillance in Africa has had for the rest of the world with the detection of new lineages and variants, the most recent being the characterization of various Omicron subvariants. CONCLUSION Sustained investment for diagnostics and genomic surveillance in Africa is needed as the virus continues to evolve. This is important not only to help combat SARS-CoV-2 on the continent but also because it can be used as a platform to help address the many emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats in Africa. In particular, capacity building for local sequencing within countries or within the continent should be prioritized because this is generally associated with shorter turnaround times, providing the most benefit to local public health authorities tasked with pandemic response and mitigation and allowing for the fastest reaction to localized outbreaks. These investments are crucial for pandemic preparedness and response and will serve the health of the continent well into the 21st century

    Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura prognosis is affected by blood pressure

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    International audienceBACKGROUND: The prevalence, prognostic role, and diagnostic value of blood pressure in immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) and other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) remain unclear. METHODS: Using a national cohort of iTTP (n = 368), Shigatoxin-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 86), atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 84), and hypertension-related thrombotic microangiopathy (n = 25), we sought to compare the cohort’s blood pressure profile to assess its impact on prognosis and diagnostic performances. RESULTS: Patients with iTTP had lower blood pressure than patients with other TMAs, systolic (130 [interquartile range (IQR) 118-143] vs 161 [IQR 142-180] mmHg) and diastolic (76 [IQR 69-83] vs 92 [IQR 79-105] mmHg, both p < 0.001). The best threshold for iTTP diagnosis corresponded to a systolic blood pressure <150 mmHg. iTTP patients presenting with hypertension had a significantly poorer survival (hazard ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.04), and this effect remained significant after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.30). Addition of a blood pressure criterion modestly improved the French clinical score to predict a severe A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 deficiency in patients with an intermediate score (i.e., either platelet count <30 × 10(9)/L or serum creatinine <200 ”M). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated blood pressure at admission affects the prognosis of iTTP patients and may help discriminate them from other TMA patients. Particular attention should be paid to blood pressure and its management in these patients

    Renal involvement in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA): a multicentric retrospective study of 63 biopsy-proven cases

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    International audienceAbstract Objective Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis characterized by asthma, hypereosinophilia and ANCA positivity in 40% of patients. Renal involvement is rare and poorly described, leading to this renal biopsy-proven based study in a large EGPA cohort. Methods We conducted a retrospective multicentre study including patients fulfilling the 1990 ACR criteria and/or the 2012 revised Chapel Hill Consensus Conference criteria for EGPA and/or the modified criteria of the MIRRA trial, with biopsy-proven nephropathy. Results Sixty-three patients [27 women, median age 60 years (18–83)] were included. Renal disease was present at vasculitis diagnosis in 54 patients (86%). ANCA were positive in 53 cases (84%) with anti-MPO specificity in 44 (83%). All patients had late-onset asthma. Peripheral neuropathy was present in 29 cases (46%), alveolar haemorrhage in 10 (16%). The most common renal presentation was acute renal failure (75%). Renal biopsy revealed pauci-immune necrotizing GN in 49 cases (78%). Membranous nephropathy (10%) and membranoproliferative GN (3%) were mostly observed in ANCA-negative patients. Pure acute interstitial nephritis was found in six cases (10%); important interstitial inflammation was observed in 28 (44%). All patients received steroids with adjunctive immunosuppression in 54 cases (86%). After a median follow-up of 51 months (1–296), 58 patients (92%) were alive, nine (14%) were on chronic dialysis and two (3%) had undergone kidney transplantation. Conclusion Necrotizing pauci-immune GN is the most common renal presentation in ANCA-positive EGPA. ANCA-negative patients had frequent atypical renal presentation with other glomerulopathies such as membranous nephropathy. An important eosinophilic interstitial infiltration was observed in almost 50% of cases

    Outcomes of digoxin vs. beta blocker in atrial fibrillation: report from ESC–EHRA EORP AF Long-Term General Registry

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    International audienceAbstract Aims The safety of digoxin therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) remains ill-defined. We aimed to evaluate the effects of digoxin over beta-blocker therapy in AF. Methods and results Patients with AF who were treated with either digoxin or a beta blocker from the ESC–EHRA EORP AF (European Society of Cardiology–European Heart Rhythm Association EURObservational Research Programme Atrial Fibrillation) General Long-Term Registry were included. Outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, non-CV mortality, quality of life, and number of patients with unplanned hospitalizations. Of 6377 patients, 549 (8.6%) were treated with digoxin. Over 24 months, there were 550 (8.6%) all-cause mortality events and 1304 (23.6%) patients with unplanned emergency hospitalizations. Compared to beta blocker, digoxin therapy was associated with increased all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.90 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.48–2.44)], CV mortality [HR 2.18 (95% CI 1.47–3.21)], and non-CV mortality [HR 1.68 (95% CI 1.02–2.75)] with reduced quality of life [health utility score 0.555 (±0.406) vs. 0.705 (±0.346), P < 0.001] but no differences in emergency hospitalizations [HR 1.00 (95% CI 0.56–1.80)] or AF-related hospitalizations [HR 0.95 (95% CI 0.60–1.52)]. On multivariable analysis, there were no differences in any of the outcomes between both groups, after accounting for potential confounders. Similar results were obtained in the subgroups of patients with permanent AF and coexisting heart failure. There were no differences in outcomes between AF patients receiving digoxin with and without chronic kidney disease. Conclusion Poor outcomes related to the use of digoxin over beta-blocker therapy in terms of excess mortality and reduced quality of life are associated with the presence of other risk factors rather than digoxin per se. The choice of digoxin or beta-blocker therapy had no influence on the incidence of unplanned hospitalizations

    Major Bleeding of Transjugular Native Kidney Biopsies. A French Nationwide Cohort Study

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    Introduction: The risk of bleeding associated with transjugular kidney biopsies is unclear, and which patients are the best candidates for this route is unknown. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study comparing proportion of bleeding associated with transjugular versus percutaneous native kidney biopsies in all patients in France in the 2010–2019 period. Major bleeding at day 8 (i.e., blood transfusions, hemorrhage/hematoma, angiographic intervention, nephrectomy) and risk of death at day 30 were assessed, and we used a bleeding risk score initially developed for the percutaneous route. Results: Our analysis included 60,331 patients (transjugular route: 5305; percutaneous route: 55,026 patients). The observed proportion of major bleeding varied widely (transjugular vs. percutaneous): 0.4% versus 0.5% for the lowest risk scores (0–4) to 19.1% versus 30.8% for the highest risk scores (≄35). Transjugular was more frequently used than percutaneous route (39% vs. 24%) when the risk score was ≄20 (15,133/60,331; 25% of all patients). Transjugular was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding than percutaneous route in multivariate analyses (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88 [0.78–0.99]), especially for scores ≄20 (OR: 0.83 [0.72–0.96], (i.e., 25% of patients). Major bleeding was associated with an increased risk of death both for transjugular (OR: 1.77 [1.00–3.14]) and percutaneous (OR: 1.80 [1.43–2.28]) routes. Conclusions: The transjugular route is independently associated with a lower risk of bleeding than the percutaneous route, especially in high-risk patients identified by a preprocedure risk score ≄20 (i.e., 25% of patients). Major bleeding is associated with an increased risk of death for both routes

    Major Bleeding of Transjugular Native Kidney Biopsies. A French Nationwide Cohort Study

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    Initial Clinical Results of a Novel Immuno-PET Theranostic Probe in HER2-negative Breast Cancer

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    International audiencePurpose: This prospective study evaluated the imaging performance of a novel immunological pretargeting positron-emission tomorgraphy (immuno-PET) method in patients with HER2-negative, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-positive, metastatic breast cancer (BC), compared to computed tomography (CT), bone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 18Fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET). Patients and Methods: Twenty-three patients underwent whole-body immuno-PET after injection of 150 MBq 68Ga-IMP288, a histamine-succinyl-glycine peptide given following initial targeting of a trivalent anti-CEA, bispecific, anti-peptide antibody. The gold standards were histology and imaging follow-up. Tumor standard uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were measured, and tumor burden analyzed using Total Tumor Volume (TTV) and Total Lesion Activity (TLA). Results: Total lesion sensitivity of immuno-PET and FDG-PET was 94.7% (1116/1178) and 89.6% (1056/1178), respectively. Immuno-PET had a somewhat higher sensitivity than CT and FDG-PET in lymph nodes (92.4% vs 69.7% and 89.4%, respectively) and liver metastases (97.3% vs 92.1% and 94.8%, respectively), whereas sensitivity was lower for lung metastases (48.3% vs 100% and 75.9%, respectively). Immuno-PET showed higher sensitivity than MRI and FDG-PET for bone lesions (95.8% vs 90.7% and 89.3%, respectively). In contrast to FDG-PET, immuno-PET disclosed brain metastases. Despite equivalent tumor SUVmax, SUVmean, and TTV, TLA was significantly higher with immuno-PET compared to FDG PET (P = 0.009). Conclusion: Immuno-PET using anti-CEA/anti-IMP288 bispecific antibody, followed by 68Ga-IMP288, is a potentially sensitive theranostic imaging method for HER2-negative, CEA-positive, metastatic BC patients, and warrants further research
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