539 research outputs found

    Sampling and Recovery of Pulse Streams

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    Compressive Sensing (CS) is a new technique for the efficient acquisition of signals, images, and other data that have a sparse representation in some basis, frame, or dictionary. By sparse we mean that the N-dimensional basis representation has just K<<N significant coefficients; in this case, the CS theory maintains that just M = K log N random linear signal measurements will both preserve all of the signal information and enable robust signal reconstruction in polynomial time. In this paper, we extend the CS theory to pulse stream data, which correspond to S-sparse signals/images that are convolved with an unknown F-sparse pulse shape. Ignoring their convolutional structure, a pulse stream signal is K=SF sparse. Such signals figure prominently in a number of applications, from neuroscience to astronomy. Our specific contributions are threefold. First, we propose a pulse stream signal model and show that it is equivalent to an infinite union of subspaces. Second, we derive a lower bound on the number of measurements M required to preserve the essential information present in pulse streams. The bound is linear in the total number of degrees of freedom S + F, which is significantly smaller than the naive bound based on the total signal sparsity K=SF. Third, we develop an efficient signal recovery algorithm that infers both the shape of the impulse response as well as the locations and amplitudes of the pulses. The algorithm alternatively estimates the pulse locations and the pulse shape in a manner reminiscent of classical deconvolution algorithms. Numerical experiments on synthetic and real data demonstrate the advantages of our approach over standard CS

    Learning to Invert: Signal Recovery via Deep Convolutional Networks

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    The promise of compressive sensing (CS) has been offset by two significant challenges. First, real-world data is not exactly sparse in a fixed basis. Second, current high-performance recovery algorithms are slow to converge, which limits CS to either non-real-time applications or scenarios where massive back-end computing is available. In this paper, we attack both of these challenges head-on by developing a new signal recovery framework we call {\em DeepInverse} that learns the inverse transformation from measurement vectors to signals using a {\em deep convolutional network}. When trained on a set of representative images, the network learns both a representation for the signals (addressing challenge one) and an inverse map approximating a greedy or convex recovery algorithm (addressing challenge two). Our experiments indicate that the DeepInverse network closely approximates the solution produced by state-of-the-art CS recovery algorithms yet is hundreds of times faster in run time. The tradeoff for the ultrafast run time is a computationally intensive, off-line training procedure typical to deep networks. However, the training needs to be completed only once, which makes the approach attractive for a host of sparse recovery problems.Comment: Accepted at The 42nd IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processin

    Opening Education

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    The open education (OE) movement provides new mechanisms to democratize education by interconnecting ideas, learners, and instructors in new kinds of constructs that replace traditional textbooks, courses, and certifications
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