710 research outputs found

    Correlative study on impaired prostaglandin E2 regulation in EAT and maladaptive cardiac remodeling via EPAC2 and ST2 signaling in overweight CVD subjects

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    There is recent evidence that the dysfunctional responses of a peculiar visceral fat deposit known as epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) can directly promote cardiac enlargement in the case of obesity. Here, we observed a newer molecular pattern associated with LV dysfunction mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) deregulation in EAT in a cardiovascular disease (CVD) population. A series of 33 overweight CVD males were enrolled and their EAT thickness, LV mass, and volumes were measured by echocardiography. Blood, plasma, EAT, and SAT biopsies were collected for molecular and proteomic assays. Our data show that PGE(2) biosynthetic enzyme (PTGES-2) correlates with echocardiographic parameters of LV enlargement: LV diameters, LV end diastolic volume, and LV masses. Moreover, PTGES-2 is directly associated with EPAC2 gene (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001), known as a molecular inducer of ST2/IL-33 mediators involved in maladaptive heart remodelling. Furthermore, PGE(2) receptor 3 (PTEGER3) results are downregulated and its expression is inversely associated with ST2/IL-33 expression. Contrarily, PGE(2) receptor 4 (PTGER4) is upregulated in EAT and directly correlates with ST2 molecular expression. Our data suggest that excessive body fatness can shift the EAT transcriptome to a pro-tissue remodelling profile, may be driven by PGE(2) deregulation, with consequent promotion of EPAC2 and ST2 signalling

    Archeologia delle alte quote sulla montagna veneta: la campagna di ricognizione di superficie 2019 a Recoaro Terme (Vicenza)

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    In this paper we present the preliminary results of the 2019 field survey conducted in the framework of the project “Beyond the border. Study and enhancement of the highlands between Veneto and Trentino”. The aim of this overarching project, which applies a multidisciplinary approach, is threefold: to detect in this mountain landscape the main activity areas and reconstruct possible connections between them; to analyse the long-term relationships between Trentino and Prealpine Veneto from prehistory to the present day; and to study the evolving function of this frontier area during periods of conflict/interaction. Several methods were employed to shed light on the above-mentioned research aims: field-walking survey, analysis of aerial photos, ethnographic and archival research, GIS-based landscape analysis and predictive modelling, and LiDAR data for feature detection in wooded areas. The combined use of all these approaches allowed us to identify long-term exploitation activities, which are documented also by both the ethnographic and archaeological data. The major periods of conflict in these areas are also highlighted in the archaeological record. The 2019-survey campaign opens up new research directions such as the future excavation of Bronze Age occupation zones; network and connectivity analysis between Prealpine Veneto and Trentino; hillforts and their interaction with the highlands. Digital ArchaeologyClassical & Mediterranean ArchaeologyEuropean Prehistor

    Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

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    BACKGROUND: While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service) lists, and area sampling. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls were included in analyses. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations with total phytoestrogens, as well as isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and glycitein), lignans (matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol), and coumestrol. RESULTS: No statistically significant associations were found with any of the phytoestrogens under evaluation. However, there was a suggestion of an inverse association with total phytoestrogen consumption (from foods and supplements), with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-1.00; p for trend: 0.04) for the highest vs. lowest tertile of consumption, after adjusting for reproductive covariates, age, race, education, BMI, and total energy. Further adjustment for smoking and physical activity attenuated risk estimates (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.41-1.08). There was little evidence of an inverse association for isoflavones, lignans, or coumestrol. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided some suggestion that phytoestrogen consumption may decrease ovarian cancer risk, although results did not reach statistical significance

    Echocardiographic phenotype and prognosis in transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis

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    AIMS: Transthyretin amyloidosis cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure. We sought to characterize the structural and functional echocardiographic phenotype across the spectrum of wild-type (wtATTR-CM) and hereditary (hATTR-CM) transthyretin cardiomyopathy and the echocardiographic features predicting prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 1240 patients with ATTR-CM who underwent prospective protocolized evaluations comprising full echocardiographic assessment and survival between 2000 and 2019, comprising 766 with wtATTR-CM and 474 with hATTR-CM, of whom 314 had the V122I variant and 127 the T60A variant. At diagnosis, patients with V122I-hATTR-CM had the most severe degree of systolic and diastolic dysfunction across all echocardiographic parameters and patients with T60AhATTR-CM the least; patients with wtATTR-CM had intermediate features. Stroke volume index, right atrial area index, longitudinal strain, and E/e' were all independently associated with mortality (P < 0.05 for all). Severe aortic stenosis (AS) was also independently associated with prognosis, conferring a significantly shorter survival (median survival 22 vs. 53 months, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The three distinct genotypes present with varying degrees of severity. Echocardiography indicates a complex pathophysiology in which both systolic and diastolic function are independently associated with mortality. The presence of severe AS was independently associated with significantly reduced patient survival

    Offspring sex and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a multinational pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies

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    While childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case–controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case–control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for potential confounders. In general, no associations were found between offspring sex and EOC risk. However, compared to bearing only female offspring, bearing one or more male offspring was associated with increased risk of mucinous EOC (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.07), which appeared to be limited to women reporting menarche before age 13 compared to later menarche (OR = 1.71 vs 0.99; P-interaction = 0.02). Bearing increasing numbers of male offspring was associated with greater risks of mucinous tumors (OR = 1.31, 1.84, 2.31, for 1, 2 and 3 or more male offspring, respectively; trend-p = 0.005). Stratifying by hormonally-associated conditions suggested that compared to bearing all female offspring, bearing a male offspring was associated with lower risk of endometrioid cancer among women with a history of adult acne, hirsutism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83) but with higher risk among women without any of those conditions (OR = 1.64 95% CI = 1.14–2.34; P-interaction = 0.003). Offspring sex influences the childbearing-EOC risk relationship for specific histotypes and conditions. These findings support the differing etiologic origins of EOC histotypes and highlight the importance of EOC histotype-specific epidemiologic studies. These findings also suggest the need to better understand how pregnancy affects EOC ris

    Impact of social determinants on antiretroviral therapy access and outcomes entering the era of universal treatment for people living with HIV in Italy

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    Background: Social determinants are known to be a driving force of health inequalities, even in high income countries. Aim of our study was to determine if these factors can limit antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, outcome and retention in care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Italy. Methods: All ART naĂŻve HIV+ patients (pts) of Italian nationality enrolled in the ICONA Cohort from 2002 to 2016 were included. The association of socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, risk factor for HIV infection, educational level, occupational status and residency area) with time to: ART initiation (from the first positive anti-HIV test), ART regimen discontinuation, and first HIV-RNA &lt; 50 cp/mL, were evaluated by Cox regression analysis, Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 8023 HIV+ pts (82% males, median age at first pos anti-HIV test 36 years, IQR: 29-44) were included: 6214 (77.5%) started ART during the study period. Women, people who inject drugs (PWID) and residents in Southern Italy presented the lowest levels of education and the highest rate of unemployment compared to other groups. Females, pts aged &gt; 50 yrs., unemployed vs employed, and people with lower educational levels presented the lowest CD4 count at ART initiation compared to other groups. The overall median time to ART initiation was 0.6 years (yrs) (IQR 0.1-3.7), with a significant decrease over time [2002-2006 = 3.3 yrs. (0.2-9.4); 2007-2011 = 1.0 yrs. (0.1-3.9); 2012-2016 = 0.2 yrs. (0.1-2.1), p &lt; 0.001]. By multivariate analysis, females (p &lt; 0.01) and PWID (p &lt; 0.001), presented a longer time to ART initiation, while older people (p &lt; 0.001), people with higher educational levels (p &lt; 0.001), unemployed (p = 0.02) and students (p &lt; 0.001) were more likely to initiate ART. Moreover, PWID, unemployed vs stable employed, and pts. with lower educational levels showed a lower 1-year probability of achieving HIV-RNA suppression, while females, older patients, men who have sex with men (MSM), unemployed had higher 1-year risk of first-line ART discontinuation. Conclusions: Despite median time to ART start decreased from 2002 to 2016, socio-demographic factors still contribute to disparities in ART initiation, outcome and durability

    Admixture Mapping of African–American Women in the AMBER Consortium Identifies New Loci for Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Receptor Subtypes

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    Recent genetic admixture coupled with striking differences in incidence of estrogen receptor (ER) breast cancer subtypes, as well as severity, between women of African and European ancestry, provides an excellent rationale for performing admixture mapping in African American women with breast cancer risk. We performed the largest breast cancer admixture mapping study with in African American women to identify novel genomic regions associated with the disease. We conducted a genome-wide admixture scan using 2,624 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in 3,629 breast cancer cases (including 1,968 ER-positive, 1093 ER-negative, and 601 triple-negative) and 4,658 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, a collaborative study of four large geographically different epidemiological studies of breast cancer in African American women. We used an independent case-control study to test for SNP association in regions with genome-wide significant admixture signals. We found two novel genome-wide significant regions of excess African ancestry, 4p16.1 and 17q25.1, associated with ER-positive breast cancer. Two regions known to harbor breast cancer variants, 10q26 and 11q13, were also identified with excess of African ancestry. Fine-mapping of the identified genome-wide significant regions suggests the presence of significant genetic associations with ER-positive breast cancer in 4p16.1 and 11q13. In summary, we identified three novel genomic regions associated with breast cancer risk by ER status, suggesting that additional previously unidentified variants may contribute to the racial differences in breast cancer risk in the African American population

    Validation of the INCREMENT-SOT-CPE score in a large cohort of liver transplant recipients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales infection

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    Background: Management of infections due to carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients remains a difficult challenge. The INCREMENT-SOT-CPE score has been specifically developed from SOT recipients to stratify mortality risk, but an external validation is lacking.Methods: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of liver transplant (LT) recipients colonized with CRE infection who developed infection after transplant over 7-year period. Primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality from infection onset. A comparison between INCREMENT-SOT-CPE and other selected scores was performed. A two-level mixed effects logistic regression model with random effects for the center was fitted. Performance characteristics at optimal cut-point were calculated. Multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors for all-cause 30-day mortality was carried out.Results: Overall, 250 CRE carriers developed infection after LT and were analyzed. The median age was 55 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 46-62) and 157 were males (62.8%). All-cause 30-day mortality was 35.6%. A sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score &gt;= 11 showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 69.7%, 76.4%, 62.0%, 82.0%, and 74.0%, respectively. An INCREMENT-SOT-CPE &gt;= 11 reported a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 73.0%, 62.1%, 51.6%, 80.6% and 66.0%, respectively. At multivariable analysis acute renal failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation, INCREMENT-SOT-CPE score &gt;= 11 and SOFA score &gt;= 11 were independently associated with all-cause 30-day mortality, while a tigecycline-based targeted regimen was found to be protective.Conclusions: Both INCREMENT-SOT-CPE &gt;= 11 and SOFA &gt;= 11 were identified as strong predictors of all-cause 30-day mortality in a large cohort of CRE carriers developing infection after LT
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