1,392 research outputs found

### Sensitivity analysis of statistical measures for the reconstruction of microstructures based on the minimization of generalized least-square functionals

For the simulation of micro-heterogeneous materials the FE2-method provides incorporation of the mechanical behavior at the microscale in a direct manner by taking into account a microscopic boundary value problem based on a representative volume element (RVE). A main problem of this approach is the high computational cost, when we have to deal with RVEs that are characterized by a complex geometry of the individual constituents. This leads to a large number of degrees of freedom and history variables at the microscale which needs a large amount of memory, not to mention the high computation time. Therefore, methods that reduce the complexity of such RVEs play an important role for efﬁcient direct micro-macro transition procedures. In this contribution we focus on random matrix-inclusion microstructures and analyze several statistical measures with respect to their inﬂuence on the characterization of the inclusion phase morphology. For this purpose we apply the method proposed in Balzani and Schr¨oder (2008); Balzani et al. (2009a), where an objective function is minimized which takes into account differences between statistical measures computed for the original binary image of a given real microstructure and a simpliﬁed statistically similar representative volume element (SSRVE). The analysis with respect to the capability of the resulting SSRVEs to reﬂect the mechanical response in some simple independent virtual experiments allows for an estimation of the importance of the investigated statistical measures

### Optimal refrigerator

We study a refrigerator model which consists of two $n$-level systems
interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal
bath at temperatures $T_h$ and $T_c$, respectively ($\theta\equiv T_c/T_h<1$).
The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between
the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to
equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from
the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is
maximized and {\it vice versa}. A reasonable compromise is achieved by
optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of
the two system. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by
$\zeta_{\rm CA}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\theta}}-1$ (an analogue of the Curzon-Ahlborn
efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency
$\zeta_{\rm C} = \frac{1}{1-\theta}-1$. The lower bound is reached in the
equilibrium limit $\theta\to 1$. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite
power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for $\ln n\gg 1$. If
the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra
for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by $\zeta_{\rm CA}$ and
converges to it for $n\gg 1$.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figure

### Efficacy of adalimumab as second-line therapy in a pediatric cohort of crohn’s disease patients who failed infliximab therapy: The Italian society of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition experience

Background: Adalimumab (Ada) treatment is an available option for pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD) and the published experience as rescue therapy is limited. Objectives: We investigated Ada efficacy in a retrospective, pediatric CD cohort who had failed previous infliximab treatment, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Methods: In this multicenter study, data on demographics, clinical activity, growth, laboratory values (CRP) and adverse events were collected from CD patients during follow-up. Clinical remission (CR) and response were defined with Pediatric CD Activity Index (PCDAI) score ≤10 and a decrease in PCDAI score of ≥12.5 from baseline, respectively. Results: A total of 44 patients were consecutively recruited (mean age 14.8 years): 34 of 44 (77%) had active disease (mean PCDAI score 24.5) at the time of Ada administration, with a mean disease duration of 3.4 (range 0.3–11.2) years. At 6, 12, and 18 months, out of the total of the enrolled population, CR rates were 55%, 78%, and 52%, respectively, with a significant decrease in PCDAI scores (P<0.01) and mean CRP values (mean CRP 5.7 and 2.4 mL/dL, respectively; P<0.01) at the end of follow-up. Steroid-free remission rates, considered as the total number of patients in CR who were not using steroids at the end of this study, were 93%, 95%, and 96% in 44 patients at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. No significant differences in growth parameters were detected. In univariate analysis of variables related to Ada efficacy, we found that only a disease duration >2 years was negatively correlated with final PCDAI score (P<0.01). Two serious adverse events were recorded: 1 meningitis and 1 medulloblastoma. Conclusion: Our data confirm Ada efficacy in pediatric patients as second-line biological therapy after infliximab failure. Longer-term prospective data are warranted to define general effectiveness and safety in pediatric CD patients

### MHz Unidirectional Rotation of Molecular Rotary Motors

A combination of cryogenic UV-vis and CD spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy at ambient temperature is used to study a new class of unidirectional rotary molecular motors. Stabilization of unstable intermediates is achieved below 95 K in propane solution for the structure with the fastest rotation rate, and below this temperature measurements on the rate limiting step in the rotation cycle can be performed to obtain activation parameters. The results are compared to measurements at ambient temperature using transient absorption spectroscopy, which show that behavior of these motors is similar over the full temperature range investigated, thereby allowing a maximum rotation rate of 3 MHz at room temperature under suitable irradiation conditions

### Minimal Work Principle and its Limits for Classical Systems

The minimal work principle asserts that work done on a thermally isolated
equilibrium system, is minimal for the slowest (adiabatic) realization of a
given process. This principle, one of the formulations of the second law, is
operationally well-defined for any finite (few particle) Hamiltonian system.
Within classical Hamiltonian mechanics, we show that the principle is valid for
a system of which the observable of work is an ergodic function. For
non-ergodic systems the principle may or may not hold, depending on additional
conditions. Examples displaying the limits of the principle are presented and
their direct experimental realizations are discussed.Comment: 4 + epsilon pages, 1 figure, revte

### Atomic scale engines: Cars and wheels

We introduce a new approach to build microscopic engines on the atomic scale
that move translationally or rotationally and can perform useful functions such
as pulling of a cargo. Characteristic of these engines is the possibility to
determine dynamically the directionality of the motion. The approach is based
on the transformation of the fed energy to directed motion through a dynamical
competition between the intrinsic lengths of the moving object and the
supporting carrier.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures (2 in color), Phys. Rev. Lett. (in print

### Pierce the ear and stab the spleen

Splenic abscess is a rare but extremely dangerous condition generally spreading from a local, or systemic, focus of infection. We present the case of a young immunocompetent female admitted with sepsis and multiple splenic abscesses. The patient had a recent left ear piercing on the tragus complicated by an ear infection. The presence of a solitary parotid abscess, the absence of other infectious foci on computed tomography scan, the negativity of blood cultures and the absence of endocarditis vegetations led us to think that the most likely culprit was a hematogenous dissemination from the left tragus. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics. There had been no need of splenectomy or any other procedure. This rather unique case underscores that splenic abscess should be suspected when a long-lasting fever and pain in the left hypochondrium are present, even when an apparently innocuous invasive procedure, such as a body piercing, is performed

### Ballistic nanofriction

Sliding parts in nanosystems such as Nano ElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS)
and nanomotors, increasingly involve large speeds, and rotations as well as
translations of the moving surfaces; yet, the physics of high speed nanoscale
friction is so far unexplored. Here, by simulating the motion of drifting and
of kicked Au clusters on graphite - a workhorse system of experimental
relevance -- we demonstrate and characterize a novel "ballistic" friction
regime at high speed, separate from drift at low speed. The temperature
dependence of the cluster slip distance and time, measuring friction, is
opposite in these two regimes, consistent with theory. Crucial to both regimes
is the interplay of rotations and translations, shown to be correlated in slow
drift but anticorrelated in fast sliding. Despite these differences, we find
the velocity dependence of ballistic friction to be, like drift, viscous

- …