151 research outputs found

    Integration of Online Social Network and E-Commerce Business through Facebook Pages

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    The aim of this paper is to explore Facebook page options through which e-commerce companies can establish relationship with online social networking users. It explores the various options available on Facebook page like audience building, data analysis, paid promotions etc. Techniques for organic and paid promotion discussed to build the page audience. Comprehensive study on data insights provided by Facebook is tabulated. This paper highlights the factors for integration of Online Social Network and e-commerce to help ecommerce companies to focus on building audience and converting them into sale. A step by step implemen-tation starting from page setup, audience building and data analy-sis is presented

    TORCH IgM seroprevalence in women with abortions as adverse reproductive outcome in current pregnancy

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    Background: The aim of present study was to know the TORCH IgM seroprevalence in pregnant women with abortions as adverse reproductive outcome in current pregnancy.Methods: A total of 63 women with abortion as adverse pregnancy event in current pregnancy and a total of 150 women with full term normal pregnancy formed our control group. IgM antibodies against TORCH agents were detected by ELISA and results were expressed qualitatively as positive and negative.Results: Evidence of TORCH infection was seen in 66.7 % of women. Highest percentage was for HSV infection (30.10%) followed by rubella (14.2%), CMV (12.6%), and toxoplasma (9.5%). seropositivity was found highest in age group 21-25 years.Conclusions: TORCH infections during pregnancy cause foetal loss. ELISA test continues to be a useful sensitive technique as the evidence of acute TORCH infections in pregnancy

    Aerobic bacterial pathogens in burn wound infections: experience in a teaching institution

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    Background: Infections are a serious cause of burn mortality and morbidity. Post initial resuscitation burn wound infections account for 75% of burn mortality. With rising number of multidrug resistant pathogens and changing microbiological colonizers of the burn wound, the insight provided by documenting the pathogens will help streamline the management. The aim of our study was to isolate, identify and study the profiles of aerobic bacteria in patients with burn wound infections.Methods: This was a hospital based observational study carried out in the department of microbiology and department of burns and plastics, Safdarjung hospital after obtaining hospital ethical committee approval. Day 1, day 3, day 5 and day 10 swabs from burn sites were taken and processed after taking proper aseptic precautions from a total of 100 patients.Results: Most of the aerobic isolates were gram negative in nature with K.pneumoniae (27.43%) being the most common followed by P. aeruginosa (22.12%), S. aureus (14.15%), P. mirabilis (10.61%), Acinetobacter spp (10.17%), CoNS (8.40%), E. coli (3.53%), P. stuartii (1.32%), Enterobacter spp (1.32%), K. oxytoca (0.44%) and C. koseri (0.44%).Conclusions: We concluded the study recognizing K. pneumoniae as the most common isolate that cause burn wound infections. Further studies which include anaerobic isolates are required for identifying full range of organism profile of burn wound infections.

    Choledochal Cyst (CDC)

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    Choledochal cysts are congenital bile duct anomalies. These cystic dilatations of the biliary tree can involve the extrahepatic biliary radicles, the intrahepatic biliary radicles, or both. The etiology remains unknown, but choledochal cysts are likely to be congenital in nature. Cyst excision is the definitive treatment of choice for choledochal cyst because of the high morbidity and high risk of carcinoma after internal drainage, a commonly used treatment in the past. CDC is a congenital anomaly involving cystic dilatation of various ducts of biliary tree. The precise etiology of extrahepatic cysts continues to remain unclear. The most commonly accepted theory is an anomalous pancreatobiliary duct junction (APBDJ) and abnormal function of the sphincter of Oddi. Proper imaging plays an essential role in preoperative planning. Proper diagnosis evaluation and management is essential for optimal management. Type I cysts are the most frequently encountered. Choledochal cysts can have variable presentations. Hepatobiliary ultrasound and MRCP are the present day standards for imaging; early diagnosis should be the norm to avoid possible late complications of cholangitis, cirrhosis, hepaticolithiasis and spontaneous perforation. Excision of the cyst with hepaticojejunostomy is the best approach

    Current status of immunoglobulin M seroprevalence in women with adverse reproductive outcomes in current pregnancy: experience in a teaching institution

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    Background: During pregnancy, the immune system is suppressed, making the individual susceptible to infections. One of the most common causes of perinatal mortality in developing countries is TORCH infections. Screening for TORCH agents during pregnancy identifies high risk mothers thereby providing the clinician with opportunity to intervene.Methods: A total of two hundred women with adverse pregnancy events in current pregnancy formed the study group while 150 women with normal pregnancy outcome formed control group. Presence of IgM antibodies against TORCH agents were detected by ELISA and results expressed qualitatively as positive or negative.Results: Our study revealed 45.56% women in current pregnancy were positive for IgM serology while in controls it was only 14.67 % (p value <0.0001). The percentage frequency of TORCH agents in terms of IgM seropositivity for toxoplasma was as 14.63%, 15.86% for rubella, 23.17% for CMV, 46.34% for HSV.Conclusions: It may not be possible to screen all patients with adverse reproductive outcome for TORCH but all women with adverse reproductive outcome in current pregnancy should be subjected to TORCH testing, especially to safeguard future pregnancies. The affected females should be counseled regarding continuation of pregnancy but remain under observation and treatment. Positive serology findings as supportive evidence to clinical diagnosis, if kept in consideration, may help manage future pregnancies more effectively

    Antibiotics sensitivity status and antibiogram patterns of aerobic bacterial isolates from surgical site infections

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    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are the third most common nosocomial infections. Emergence and spread of drug resistant strains have been found to pose a serious challenge in the management of such infections. There is limited information on the epidemiology of such pathogens. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic bacterial isolates from post-operative SSIs show wide variations that lead to difficulties in empirical selection of the right kind of drug for treatment. Properly planned studies about antibiotic sensitivities patterns of such isolates can help in judicious management of SSIs and cause reduction in morbidity and mortality.Methods: A total of 50 patients diagnosed by the surgeon and fulfilling the case definition of SSI, were studied for bacteriological analysis. All the clinical specimens were cultured and identified applying standard culture techniques. The aerobic bacterial isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method to arrive at the drug sensitivity patterns. Data were entered in MS Excel spread sheet and analysed using SSPP software version 21.00Results: A total of 32 patterns of sensitivity were observed. For Esch. coli, a total of nine patterns were observed. All strains of Esch. coli were found sensitive to tigecycline (100%) and colistin (100%). For Klebsiella spp. a total of 9 patterns were obtained with TIG-COL being the predominant pattern in 6 cases. For Acinetobacter spp. only colistin was found most effective drug. In case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, except colistin (100% sensitivity), there were wide variations in sensitivity with imipenem (71%) as next most effective drug. In Proteus spp. - most of the in-use drugs were effective except cephalosporins. Among gram positive organisms, only three strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated, and these were MRSA (100%). Two strains of enterococcus were isolated, and these showed sensitivity to linezolid only.Conclusions: Wide variations in sensitivity status observed in the study are suggestive that antibiotic usage should be tailored to individual needs and proper selection of antibiotics for management of SSIs must be guided by laboratory antibiogram

    Estimation of public compliance with COVID-19 prevention standard operating procedures through a mathematical model

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    Despite the enforcement of control plan and preventive measures, the transmission of COVID-19 is still ongoing and yet to be contained successfully. Hence, this study aimed to determine the level of compliance of the public with the standard operating procedures for COVID-19 prevention in Malaysia. A compartmental model with new formulations of timely dependent epidemiological parameter for COVID-19 outbreaks was developed. The model, consisting of ordinary differential equations, was solved by the 4th order Runge–Kutta method. The model representation is in the form of graphical user interface (GUI) built in MATLAB. The estimation of the level of compliance of the population with the control measures was done by fitting the model curve to the actual data in the GUI. The result shows that the current compliance level of the public to the control measures is at an unsatisfactory level that leads to repeated lockdown. The compliance level estimation is important to policymakers and health officials as they can infer the effectiveness of intervention strategies. Additionally, this study revealed how individual responsibility to adherence the control measures will affects the number of cases. Further action to increase public compliance to a satisfactory level is required to halt the pandemic successfully

    Comparative Analysis of Molecular Structure, Function and Expression of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Toll-Like Receptor 9

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    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) has been characterized as a receptor that recognizes unmethylated CpG motif and triggers a pro-inflammatory cytokine response that influences both innate and adaptive immunity. Buffalo is an economically important livestock species in many Asian and Mediterranean countries, but there is little information available on its TLR9 structure and response to stimulation with its agonist CpG-ODNs. Hence in this study, we report the analysis of newly sequenced buffalo TLR9 gene fragment. In this study, buffalo TLR9 amino acid sequence revealed close association of TLR9 proteins within other bovines and small ruminants; but high divergence from other species. Multiple alignment of deduced amino acid sequence of Bubalus bubalis TLR9 with other species showed that 156/201 (74.28%) amino acids were conserved in all species. Leucine rich repeat (LRR) motifs in the ectodomain of TLR9 are responsible for molecular recognition of its agonist. The LRR pattern of Bubalus bubalis TLR9 protein was predicted towards N-terminal sequence and was found to be conserved among all species except Rattus norvegicus and Equus caballus. Blast analysis of buffalo TLR9 sequence with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) database revealed 13 SNPs out of which 7 were cds-synonymous and 6 were of the functional significance. Furthermore, kinetics of TLR9 and proinflammatory IL-beta and TNF-alpha cytokine expression by buffalo PBMCs influenced by CpG-ODN is also discussed

    Clinico-epidemiological profile and risk factors associated with failure of conservative therapy in pediatric empyema patients

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    Objective: The objective is to study the clinico-epidemiological profile and risk factors associated with failure of conservative therapy in pediatric empyema patients and to correlate the Light’s criteria in the same. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based prospective observational study was performed in the pediatric department of a tertiary care hospital, New Delhi. A total of 74 children of ≤12 years of age having either macroscopic frank pus in pleural tap or a positive Gram-stain or positive culture in pleural fluid were enrolled in the study. Those empyema patients who fail to improve with antibiotics and chest tube drainage after 7–14 days (4 weeks for Staphylococcus aureus and 6–12 weeks for anaerobic organisms, respectively) or develop some complications in the mean time were considered as a failure of therapy. Results: Head nodding, lethargy and inability to feed/drink, prior antibiotic therapy, duration of illness (&gt;7 days) before presenting to the hospital, and growth on the cultures were the main factors associated with the failure of conservative therapy. S. aureus is the most common organism causing empyema. Considering Light’s criteria, significant results were obtained and almost all the enrolled empyema patients found to have exudative pleural fluid. In the study, failure of conservative therapy occurred in 27.03%, prolonged hospitalization was seen among 48.65 % children, 28.38% needed change in antibiotics, and 1.35% children expired. Conclusion: History of prior antibiotic therapy, long duration of illness, and clinical features at admission along with the microorganism involved affect the conservative therapy response and may predispose to complications. Light’s criteria were very well validated in the study for its use in pediatric population
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