127 research outputs found

    Left-ventricular epi- and endocardium extraction from 3D ultrasound images using an automatically constructed 3D ASM

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    © 2014 Taylor & Francis.In this paper, we propose an automatic method for constructing an active shape model (ASM) to segment the complete cardiac left ventricle in 3D ultrasound (3DUS) images, which avoids costly manual landmarking. The automatic construction of the ASM has already been addressed in the literature; however, the direct application of these methods to 3DUS is hampered by a high level of noise and artefacts. Therefore, we propose to construct the ASM by fusing the multidetector computed tomography data, to learn the shape, with the artificially generated 3DUS, in order to learn the neighbourhood of the boundaries. Our artificial images were generated by two approaches: a faster one that does not take into account the geometry of the transducer, and a more comprehensive one, implemented in Field II toolbox. The segmentation accuracy of our ASM was evaluated on 20 patients with left-ventricular asynchrony, demonstrating plausibility of the approach

    International nonproprietary names for monoclonal antibodies: an evolving nomenclature system

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    Appropriate nomenclature for all pharmaceutical substances is important for clinical development, licensing, prescribing, pharmacovigilance, and identification of counterfeits. Nonproprietary names that are unique and globally recognized for all pharmaceutical substances are assigned by the International Nonproprietary Names (INN) Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO). In 1991, the INN Programme implemented the first nomenclature scheme for monoclonal antibodies. To accompany biotechnological development, this nomenclature scheme has evolved over the years; however, since the scheme was introduced, all pharmacological substances that contained an immunoglobulin variable domain were coined with the stem -mab. To date, there are 879 INN with the stem -mab. Owing to this high number of names ending in -mab, devising new and distinguishable INN has become a challenge. The WHO INN Expert Group therefore decided to revise the system to ease this situation. The revised system was approved and adopted by the WHO at the 73rd INN Consultation held in October 2021, and the radical decision was made to discontinue the use of the well-known stem -mab in naming new antibody-based drugs and going forward, to replace it with four new stems: -tug, -bart, -mig, and -ment

    International nonproprietary names for monoclonal antibodies: an evolving nomenclature system

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    Appropriate nomenclature for all pharmaceutical substances is important for clinical development, licensing, prescribing, pharmacovigilance, and identification of counterfeits. Nonproprietary names that are unique and globally recognized for all pharmaceutical substances are assigned by the International Nonproprietary Names (INN) Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO). In 1991, the INN Programme implemented the first nomenclature scheme for monoclonal antibodies. To accompany biotechnological development, this nomenclature scheme has evolved over the years; however, since the scheme was introduced, all pharmacological substances that contained an immunoglobulin variable domain were coined with the stem -mab. To date, there are 879 INN with the stem -mab. Owing to this high number of names ending in -mab, devising new and distinguishable INN has become a challenge. The WHO INN Expert Group therefore decided to revise the system to ease this situation. The revised system was approved and adopted by the WHO at the 73rd INN Consultation held in October 2021, and the radical decision was made to discontinue the use of the well-known stem -mab in naming new antibody-based drugs and going forward, to replace it with four new stems: -tug, -bart, -mig, and -ment. Keywords: International Nonproprietary Name (INN); antibodies; antibody-based drugs; antibody-drug conjugates; biological drugs; biologics; nomenclature scheme; pharmaceuticals; safety; therapeutic antibodies

    Pregnancy and Fetal Outcomes After Exposure to Mefloquine in the Pre- and Periconception Period and During Pregnancy

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    Pregnant women who travel to malarious areas and their clinicians need data on the safety of malaria chemoprophylaxis. The drug safety database analysis of mefloquine exposure in pregnancy showed that the birth defect prevalence and fetal loss in maternal, prospectively-monitored cases were comparable to background rates

    A Two-Dimensional Electron Gas as a Sensitive Detector for Time-Resolved Tunneling Measurements on Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

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    A two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) situated nearby a single layer of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) in an inverted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure is used as a detector for time-resolved tunneling measurements. We demonstrate a strong influence of charged QDs on the conductance of the 2DEG which allows us to probe the tunneling dynamics between the 2DEG and the QDs time resolved. Measurements of hysteresis curves with different sweep times and real-time conductance measurements in combination with an boxcar-like evaluation method enables us to unambiguously identify the transients as tunneling events between the s- and p-electron QD states and the 2DEG and rule out defect-related transients

    Italian patients with hemoglobinopathies exhibit a 5-fold increase in age-standardized lethality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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    Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been expressed worldwide for patients with hemoglobinopathies and their vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data from Lebanon confirmed a role of underlying comorbidities on COVID-19 severity, but no deaths among a cohort of thalassemia patients.1 Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) displayed a broad range of severity after SARS-CoV-2 infection, spanning from a favorable outcome unless pre-existing comorbidities (UK cohort)2 to high case mortality in US.3 History of pain, heart, lung, and renal comorbidities was identified as risk factors of worse COVID-19 outcomes by the US SECURE-SCD Registry.4 While Italy experienced a death rate in the general population among the highest in the world, preliminary data from the first wave of the pandemic showed a lower than expected number of infected thalassemia patients (updated up to April 10, 2020), likely due to earlier and more vigilant self-isolation compared to the general population.

    Surgically generated aerosol and mitigation strategies: combined use of irrigation, respirators and suction massively reduces particulate matter aerosol

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    Background Aerosol is a health risk to theatre staff. This laboratory study quantifies the reduction in particulate matter aerosol concentrations produced by electrocautery and drilling when using mitigation strategies such as irrigation, respirator filtration and suction in a lab environment to prepare for future work under live OR conditions. Methods We combined one aerosol-generating procedure (monopolar cutting or coagulating diathermy or high-speed diamond- or steel-tipped drilling of cadaveric porcine tissue) with one or multiple mitigation strategies (instrument irrigation, plume suction and filtration using an FFP3 respirator filter) and using an optical particle counter to measure particulate matter aerosol size and concentrations. Results Significant aerosol concentrations were observed during all aerosol-generating procedures with concentrations exceeding 3 × 106 particles per 100 ml. Considerable reductions in concentrations were observed with mitigation. In drilling, suction, FFP3 filtration and wash alone respectively reduced aerosol by 19.3–31.6%, 65.1–70.8% and 97.2 to > 99.9%. The greatest reduction (97.38 to > 99.9%) was observed when combining irrigation and filtration. Coagulating diathermy reduced concentrations by 88.0–96.6% relative to cutting, but produced larger particles. Suction alone, and suction with filtration reduced aerosol concentration by 41.0–49.6% and 88.9–97.4% respectively. No tested mitigation strategies returned aerosol concentrations to baseline. Conclusion Aerosol concentrations are significantly reduced through the combined use of filtration, suction and irrigation. Further research is required to characterise aerosol concentrations in the live OR and to find acceptable exposure limits, and in their absence, to find methods to further reduce exposure to theatre staff
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