16 research outputs found

    Identification of differentially transcribed genes in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to osmotic stress and challenged with WSSV virus

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    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)The effects of hyposmotic stress and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge in expression was studied in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Messenger RNA from gills of shrimp submitted to osmotic stress was isolated to identify genes differentially expressed through the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Two subtractive libraries forward and two reverse were constructed to identify up and down-regulated genes under these conditions. About 192 clones were sequenced, of which 46 genes were identified. These genes encode proteins corresponding to a wide range of biological roles, including defense, cell signaling, electron transfer, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, intermediary metabolism, cytoskeleton and digestion. Among the identified genes, 19 were up-regulated and 27 were down-regulated in the animals kept at a lower ion concentration. We evaluated the expression of eight genes by RT-qPCR in shrimp submitted to hyposmotic conditions with and without WSSV challenge. The SSH enabled the identification of genes that are influenced by hyposmotic stress. A significant up-regulation was observed in lectin-C, QM, TGF beta inducible nuclear protein 1, ciclophilin, malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial ATP synthase F chain and ATP synthase subunit 9 precursor transcripts. However, the expression of these genes in L. vannamei was not affected by WSSV infection both at isosmotic and hyposmotic conditions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.717381FINEP-Brazil [01070625-00/336-2007]Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)FINEP-Brazil [01070625-00/336-2007

    Suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries prepared from the digestive gland of the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to a diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction

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    Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)Diesel fuel can cause adverse effects in marine invertebrates by mechanisms that are not clearly understood. The authors used suppressive subtractive hybridization to identify genes up- and downregulated in Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to diesel fuel. Genes putatively involved in protein regulation, innate immune, and stress response, were altered by diesel challenge. Three genes regulated by diesel were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study sheds light on transcriptomic responses of oysters to diesel pollution. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012;31:12491253. (c) 2012 SETAC31612491253Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)CNPq [550706/2005-4

    Virus, protozoa and organic compounds decay in depurated oysters

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    Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Aims: (1) Evaluate the dynamic of the deputation process of Crassostrea gigas oysters using different ultraviolet doses with different amounts of contaminants (virus, protozoa and organic contaminants) and (2) investigate the morphological changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the deputation procedures. Methods: The oysters were allocated in sites with different degrees of contamination and analyzed after 14 days. Some animals were used as positive controls by artificial bioaccumulation with HAdV2 and MNV1 and subjected to deputation assays using UV lamps (18 or 36 W) for 168 h. The following pollutants were researched in the naturally contaminated oysters, oysters after 14 days in sites and oysters during the deputation processes: virus (HAdV, HAV, HuNoV GI/GII and JCPyV), by (RI) qPCR; protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia species), by immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescence; and organic compounds (AHs, PAHs, LABs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-OCs), by chromatography. Changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the deputation processes were also evaluated using histochemical analysis by light microscopy. In the artificially bioaccumulated oysters, only HAdV2 and MNV1 were investigated by (RT) qPCR before the deputation procedures and after 96 and 168 h of these procedures. Results: At 14 days post-allocation, HAdV was found in all the sites (6.2 x 105 to 4.4 x 107 GC g(-1)), and Giardia species in only one site. Levels of PCBs and OCs in the oyster's tissues were below the detection limit for all samples. AHs (3.5 to 4.4 mu g g(-1)), PAHs (11 to 191 ng g(-1)) and LABs (57 to 751 ng g(-1)) were detected in the samples from 3 sites. During the deputation assays, we found HAdV, Giardia and Cryptosporidium species until 168 h, independent of UV treatment. AHs, PAHs and LABs were found also after 168 h of depuration (36 W and without UV lamp). The deputation procedures did not produce changes in the oysters' tissues. In the artificially contaminated and depurated oysters, we detected HAdV until 168 h and MNV1 until 96 h of deputation. Conclusion: The applied deputation treatments were unable to eliminate the protozoa or to degrade the HAdV genomes but were able to degrade the MNV1 genomes. Similarly, the UV water treatment was not efficient for aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs and LABs, as their concentrations were equivalent or higher to the concentrations of the control samples and samples from deputation tanks without UV treatment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.1673337345Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)CNPq [578200/2008-2]CNPq [14/2009/UNIVERSAL]CNPq [25/2010

    Influence of season and pollution on the antioxidant defenses of the cichlid fish acará (Geophagus brasiliensis)

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    The livers of Geophagus brasiliensis collected from both a non-polluted site and a polluted site were analyzed for different antioxidant defenses, O2 consumption, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and histological damage. Compared to controls (116.6 ± 26.1 nmol g-1), TBARS levels were enhanced at the polluted site (284.2 ± 25.6 nmol g-1), as also was oxygen consumption (86.6 ± 11.3 and 128.5 ± 9.8 µmol O2 min-1 g-1, respectively). With respect to enzymatic antioxidants, increased catalase activities (8.7 ± 1.3 and 29.2 ± 2.4 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively), unchanged superoxide dismutase activities (767.2 ± 113.3 and 563.3 ± 70.2 U g-1, respectively), and diminished glutathione S-transferase activities (29.0 ± 3.2 and 14.9 ± 3.2 µmol min-1 g-1, respectively) were detected. Reduced glutathione (1.91 ± 0.17 and 1.37 ± 0.25 mM, respectively), oxidized glutathione (1.50 ± 0.20 and 0.73 ± 0.17 mM, respectively), and total glutathione (3.40 ± 0.26 and 2.07 ± 0.27 mM, respectively) concentrations were also below control values at the polluted site. Nevertheless, the observed ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities (1.34 ± 0.11 and 16.7 ± 0.21 pmol min-1 mg-1, respectively) showed enhanced values at the polluted site. The main histological damage observed in the hepatocytes from fish collected at the polluted site was characterized by heavy lipid infiltration. Fish collected at the end of spring showed higher O2 consumption, higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and higher total and oxidized glutathione concentrations compared to the beginning of autumn. No seasonal changes were observed in catalase activities, glutathione or TBARS levels. Fish chronically exposed to relatively high pollution levels seem to be unable to set up adequate antioxidant defenses, probably due to severe injury to their hepatocytes. The higher antioxidant defenses found at the end of spring are probably related to the enhanced activities during high temperature periods in thermoconforming organisms