37 research outputs found

    Biometry and corneal aberrations after cataract surgery in childhood

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    BACKGROUND: To report long‐term biometric and refractive outcomes in a group of Danish children after surgery for childhood cataract. METHODS: Children between 7 and 18 years who had undergone uni‐ or bilateral cataract surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, were examined in this cross‐sectional study. Swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) based optical biometry (IOLmaster 700) and anterior tomography (Pentacam) was performed. Healthy fellow eyes from those with unilateral cataract were used as controls. RESULTS: We included 56 children in the study with a median age at surgery of 43.8 months (1.6–137.6). The amount of higher order aberrations was significantly increased in operated eyes (median root mean square 0.461 μm [range 0.264–1.484]) compared with non‐operated eyes (median root mean square 0.337 μm [range 0.162–0.498], p < 0.001). Younger age at surgery was positively associated with more higher order aberrations at follow‐up (p < 0.001), but we found no significant associations between the amount of higher order aberrations and visual acuity or contrast vision. Longer axial length was associated to glaucoma while shorter axial length was associated to strabismus (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Eyes operated for childhood cataract have higher order aberrations compared with non‐operated eyes. Higher order aberrations are complex refractive errors that cannot be corrected by normal lenses and may contribute to poor visual outcomes for the children. We found an association between young age at surgery and higher order aberrations

    Steroid Response after Trabeculectomy&mdash;A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Dexamethasone to Diclofenac Eye Drops

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    This prospective randomized controlled trial aimed to compare changes in intraocular pressure in three different anti-inflammatory regimens following trabeculectomy. Sixty-nine patients were randomized to receive either postoperative prophylaxis with topical preservative-free dexamethasone (DEX), diclofenac (DICLO), or their combination (DEX+DICLO). Our main outcome measure was an intraocular pressure (IOP) change of a minimum 4 mmHg following the withdrawal of anti-inflammatory prophylaxis 9 weeks after trabeculectomy. We found that the IOP decreased &ge; 4 mmHg in 18.6% of eyes after cessation of the topical steroid DEX (n = 3/22) and DEX+DICLO (n = 5/21), whereas a decrease in IOP was not observed in the DICLO group. In conclusion, IOP decreased in nearly 1/5 of patients after cessation of topical steroidal anti-inflammatory prophylaxis after trabeculectomy. This points toward a steroid-induced increase in IOP even after trabeculectomy. Thus, increased postoperative IOP may be related to steroid use, and the success or failure of a trabeculectomy cannot be fully evaluated before anti-inflammatory prophylaxis with steroids is stopped or changed to non-steroidal eye drops

    Diagnostic Test Accuracy of the Red Reflex Test for Ocular Pathology in Infants:A Meta-analysis

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    IMPORTANCE: Red reflex testing is a simple and inexpensive method implemented in many countries as an important part of infant screening for ocular pathologies. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on the diagnostic accuracy of the red reflex test in infant screening for ocular pathologies and to perform meta-analyses to provide summary estimates. DATA SOURCES: The following literature databases were searched for English-language, peer-reviewed literature, published until April 19, 2020: Cochrane Central, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, KCI-Korean Journal Database, Russian Science Citation Index, SciELO Citation Index, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Eligibility criteria were defined according to population (studies of consecutively screened infants), exposure (red reflex or Brückner test as the index test), comparator (any ophthalmological examination), and study type (any study with diagnostic test accuracy data). DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies (PRISMA-DTA) guidelines were followed. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors. For summary estimates of diagnostic test accuracy, the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics curve was used. Prevalence of ocular pathologies was introduced for a prevalence meta-analysis, which was then used in calculations of diagnostic accuracy of the red reflex test when applied in infant screening. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: True-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative findings; sensitivity; specificity; and positive and negative predictive values. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, 8713 unique infants from 5 unique studies were eligible for qualitative and quantitative review. All studies used the red reflex test without pupillary dilation and were compared with a reference test performed with pupillary dilation. For any ocular pathology, an estimated sensitivity of 7.5% (95% CI, 7.4%-7.5%) and specificity of 97.5% (95% CI, 97.5%-97.5%) was found. Focusing on ocular pathologies that required a medical or surgical intervention, sensitivity improved to 17.5% (95% CI, 0.8%-84.8%) and specificity remained high at 97.6% (95% CI, 87.7%-99.6%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that an abnormal red reflex finding most likely reflects an underlying ocular pathology. However, a normal red reflex finding during screening does not exclude ocular disease