500 research outputs found

    Exploring the Viability of Utilizing Treated Wastewater as a Sustainable Water Resource for Green Hydrogen Generation Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOECs)

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    In response to the European Union's initiative toward achieving carbon neutrality, the utilization of water electrolysis for hydrogen production has emerged as a promising avenue for decarbonizing current energy systems. Among the various approaches, Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) presents an attractive solution, especially due to its potential to utilize impure water sources. This study focuses on modeling a SOEC supplied with four distinct streams of treated municipal wastewaters, using the Aspen Plus software. Through the simulation analysis, it was determined that two of the wastewater streams could be effectively evaporated and treated within the cell, without generating waste liquids containing excessive pollutant concentrations. Specifically, by evaporating 27% of the first current and 10% of the second, it was estimated that 26.2 kg/m(3) and 9.7 kg/m(3) of green hydrogen could be produced, respectively. Considering the EU's target for Italy is to have 5 GW of installed power capacity by 2030 and the mass flowrate of the analyzed wastewater streams, this hydrogen production could meet anywhere from 0.4% to 20% of Italy's projected electricity demand

    Exploring the Viability of Utilizing Treated Wastewater as a Sustainable Water Resource for Green Hydrogen Generation Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOECs)

    No full text
    In response to the European Union’s initiative toward achieving carbon neutrality, the utilization of water electrolysis for hydrogen production has emerged as a promising avenue for decarbonizing current energy systems. Among the various approaches, Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) presents an attractive solution, especially due to its potential to utilize impure water sources. This study focuses on modeling a SOEC supplied with four distinct streams of treated municipal wastewaters, using the Aspen Plus software. Through the simulation analysis, it was determined that two of the wastewater streams could be effectively evaporated and treated within the cell, without generating waste liquids containing excessive pollutant concentrations. Specifically, by evaporating 27% of the first current and 10% of the second, it was estimated that 26.2 kg/m3 and 9.7 kg/m3 of green hydrogen could be produced, respectively. Considering the EU’s target for Italy is to have 5 GW of installed power capacity by 2030 and the mass flowrate of the analyzed wastewater streams, this hydrogen production could meet anywhere from 0.4% to 20% of Italy’s projected electricity demand

    The rapid spread of SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant in Italy reflected early through wastewater surveillance

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    The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged in South Africa in November 2021, and has later been identified worldwide, raising serious concerns. A real-time RT-PCR assay was designed for the rapid screening of the Omicron variant, targeting characteristic mutations of the spike gene. The assay was used to test 737 sewage samples collected throughout Italy (19/21 Regions) between 11 November and 25 December 2021, with the aim of assessing the spread of the Omicron variant in the country. Positive samples were also tested with a real-time RT-PCR developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), and through nested RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Overall, 115 samples tested positive for Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant. The first occurrence was detected on 7 December, in Veneto, North Italy. Later on, the variant spread extremely fast in three weeks, with prevalence of positive wastewater samples rising from 1.0% (1/104 samples) in the week 5–11 December, to 17.5% (25/143 samples) in the week 12–18, to 65.9% (89/135 samples) in the week 19–25, in line with the increase in cases of infection with the Omicron variant observed during December in Italy. Similarly, the number of Regions/Autonomous Provinces in which the variant was detected increased fromone in the first week, to 11 in the second, and to 17 in the last one. The presence of the Omicron variant was confirmed by the JRC real-time RT-PCR in 79.1% (91/115) of the positive samples, and by Sanger sequencing in 66% (64/97) of PCR amplicons

    An Evidence-Based Survey on Full-Scale Membrane Biological Reactors: Main Technical Features and Operational Aspects

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    This paper presents the results of a survey on full-scale membrane biological reactors (MBRs) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Italy. Alongside the main technical characteristics of the Italian MBR plants, the opinions of the plant managers on the operational advantages and disadvantages are described. As reported by the MBR technology suppliers, approximately 290 MBR municipal or industrial WWTPs are in operation in Italy, out of which 242 were studied in this survey. Data from more than one hundred municipal WWTPs were collected; these account for a total capacity of about 2,000,000 population equivalent (PE), which corresponds to 3% of the total organic load treated by the Italian WWTPs with secondary and advanced treatment. Usually, small installations adopt the flat-sheet rather than hollow-fiber membrane configuration. The main reasons why the MBR technology has been preferred to other options are its potential to be used for increasing the treatment capacity of existing plants and its compactness. Moreover, the followed operational advantages have been highlighted: easiness to comply with the discharge limits, removal of pathogens without specific disinfection units, possibility of internal reuse of the effluent, and process automation. Membrane fouling and plant shutdown have been recorded as the most relevant troubles, the last one indeed occurring only occasionally or rarely

    INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS POTENTIAL ON SPECIFIC AGRI FOOD AND METALLURGICAL VALUE CHAINS IN LOMBARDY REGION

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    This paper focuses on the project activities carried out by ENEA on Industrial Symbiosis (IS) as part of the CREIAMO project, funded by CARIPLO Foundation, aimed at identifying and promoting new destinations and economic opportunities for by-products and waste deriving from the olive and wine sectors, under a circular economy perspective. Due to the pandemic, the ENEA's methodology for promoting and implementing IS has been adapted in order to perform from remote all the activities with the companies involved. An engagement campaign was carried out in the territory of Brescia with the support of several local associations. The IS - Operative Meeting (OM) with enterprises was held remotely on 19 February 2021. About 100 potential synergistic actions have been identified, mainly involving material resources. Following an initial processing of data, summary reports were prepared, one for each company. Significant resource flows were selected according to the quantities involved and to their economic value. As an output of this work, two technical handbooks have been drawn up for companies that are willing to transform synergies from theory to practice

    The rapid spread of SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant in Italy reflected early through wastewater surveillance

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    The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged in South Africa in November 2021, and has later been identified worldwide, raising serious concerns. A real-time RT-PCR assay was designed for the rapid screening of the Omicron variant, targeting characteristic mutations of the spike gene. The assay was used to test 737 sewage samples collected throughout Italy (19/21 Regions) between 11 November and 25 December 2021, with the aim of assessing the spread of the Omicron variant in the country. Positive samples were also tested with a real-time RT-PCR developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), and through nested RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Overall, 115 samples tested positive for Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant. The first occurrence was detected on 7 December, in Veneto, North Italy. Later on, the variant spread extremely fast in three weeks, with prevalence of positive wastewater samples rising from 1.0% (1/104 samples) in the week 5-11 December, to 17.5% (25/143 samples) in the week 12-18, to 65.9% (89/135 samples) in the week 19-25, in line with the increase in cases of infection with the Omicron variant observed during December in Italy. Similarly, the number of Regions/Autonomous Provinces in which the variant was detected increased from one in the first week, to 11 in the second, and to 17 in the last one. The presence of the Omicron variant was confirmed by the JRC real-time RT-PCR in 79.1% (91/115) of the positive samples, and by Sanger sequencing in 66% (64/97) of PCR amplicons. In conclusion, we designed an RT-qPCR assay capable to detect the Omicron variant, which can be successfully used for the purpose of wastewater-based epidemiology. We also described the history of the introduction and diffusion of the Omicron variant in the Italian population and territory, confirming the effectiveness of sewage monitoring as a powerful surveillance tool

    Estimation of thermal energy released by thermophilic biota during sludge minimization in a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of anoxic conditions

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    Thermophilic biological fluidized bed reactors operating in aerobic/anoxic alternate conditions proved to be a feasible solution for sewage sludge minimization. However, to date, no data about energy released by thermo-philic biota (ThBio) are available in literature. This work aims to estimate specific thermal energy released by ThBio highlighting the influence of daily anoxic conditions. A pilot-scale reactor (1 m3) was fed continuously with mesophilic sewage sludge and monitored for more than four months and a thermophysical model was applied to estimate thermal energy released by ThBio (kT,biota and kT,COD). Results suggested that the increase of daily anoxic time stimulated COD removal (92.7 +/- 1.3 % vs. 81.3 +/- 4.9 %, with 6 h and 0 h of daily anoxic time, respectively). The thermal energy released by ThBio was strictly dependent on anoxic conditions. In fact, increasing anoxic conditions from 0 h d-1 to 6 h d 1, kT,biota and kT,COD reduced from 1.8 & PLUSMN; 1.3 Mcal kg17S1 kg(-1) COD and 26.6 & PLUSMN; 13.7 Mcal kg(-1)COD to 0.5 +/- 0.1 Mcal kg17S1 kgjD and 15.6 & PLUSMN; 4.2 Mcal kgjD, respectively. Although, biological mechanism responsible of this behaviour is not completely clear, this work can serve as reference for future studies about the optimization of conditions to maximize thermal energy release from ThBio during organic substance degradation alternate aerobic/anoxic, in view of subsequent energy recovery

    The rapid spread of SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant in Italy reflected early through wastewater surveillance

    Get PDF
    The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged in South Africa in November 2021, and has later been identified worldwide, raising serious concerns. A real-time RT-PCR assay was designed for the rapid screening of the Omicron variant, targeting characteristic mutations of the spike gene. The assay was used to test 737 sewage samples collected throughout Italy (19/21 Regions) between 11 November and 25 December 2021, with the aim of assessing the spread of the Omicron variant in the country. Positive samples were also tested with a real-time RT-PCR developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), and through nested RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Overall, 115 samples tested positive for Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant. The first occurrence was detected on 7 December, in Veneto, North Italy. Later on, the variant spread extremely fast in three weeks, with prevalence of positive wastewater samples rising from 1.0% (1/104 samples) in the week 5–11 December, to 17.5% (25/143 samples) in the week 12–18, to 65.9% (89/135 samples) in the week 19–25, in line with the increase in cases of infection with the Omicron variant observed during December in Italy. Similarly, the number of Regions/Autonomous Provinces in which the variant was detected increased from one in the first week, to 11 in the second, and to 17 in the last one. The presence of the Omicron variant was confirmed by the JRC real-time RT-PCR in 79.1% (91/115) of the positive samples, and by Sanger sequencing in 66% (64/97) of PCR amplicons. In conclusion, we designed an RT-qPCR assay capable to detect the Omicron variant, which can be successfully used for the purpose of wastewater-based epidemiology. We also described the history of the introduction and diffusion of the Omicron variant in the Italian population and territory, confirming the effectiveness of sewage monitoring as a powerful surveillance tool
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