40,544 research outputs found

    On Type IIA geometries dual to N = 2 SCFTs

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    We provide explicit solutions of Type IIA supergravity which are believed to be dual to N = 2 superconformal four dimensional gauge theories. These explicit solutions are based on the general ansatz for such a type of backgrounds introduced by Gaiotto and Maldacena.Comment: 23 pages, 10 figures; minor corrections, references correcte

    Galaxy population properties in the rich clusters MS0839.8+2938, 1224.7+2007 and 1231.3+1542

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    This paper discusses the galaxy populations of three rich clusters, with redshift 0.19 (0839+29), 0.24 (1231+15), and 0.32 (1224+20), from the database of the CNOC1 consortium. The data consist of spectra of 52 cluster members for 0839+29, 30 members for 1224+15, and 82 members for 1231+15, and there are comparable numbers of field galaxy spectra. 0839+29 is compact with no strong radial gradients, and possibly dusty. 1224+20 is isolated in redshift, has low velocity dispersion around the cD galaxy, and low 4000A break. 1231+15 is asymmetrical and we discuss the possibility that it may be a recent merger of two old clusters. We find few galaxies in 0839+29 and 1231+15 with ongoing or recently truncated star-formation.Comment: 16 pages and 20 diagrams, to appear in A

    Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

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    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths

    Handbook for MAP, volume 32. Part 1: MAP summary. Part 2: MAPSC minutes, reading, August 1989. MAP summaries from nations. Part 3: MAP data catalogue

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    Extended abstracts from the fourth workshop on the technical and scientific aspects of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radar are presented. Individual sessions addressed the following topics: meteorological applications of MST and ST radars, networks, and campaigns; the dynamics of the equatorial middle atmosphere; interpretation of radar returns from clear air; techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence, intercomparison and calibration of wind and wave measurements at various frequencies; progress in existing and planned MST and ST radars; hardware design for MST and ST radars and boundary layer/lower troposphere profilers; signal processing; and data management

    Sensitivity of the Eocene climate to CO<sub>2</sub> and orbital variability

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    The early Eocene, from about 56 Ma, with high atmospheric CO2 levels, offers an analogue for the response of the Earth’s climate system to anthropogenic fossil fuel burning. In this study, we present an ensemble of 50 Earth system model runs with an early Eocene palaeogeography and variation in the forcing values of atmospheric CO2 and the Earth’s orbital parameters. Relationships between simple summary metrics of model outputs and the forcing parameters are identified by linear modelling, providing estimates of the relative magnitudes of the effects of atmospheric CO2 and each of the orbital parameters on important climatic features, including tropical–polar temperature difference, ocean–land temperature contrast, Asian, African and South (S.) American monsoon rains, and climate sensitivity. Our results indicate that although CO2 exerts a dominant control on most of the climatic features examined in this study, the orbital parameters also strongly influence important components of the ocean–atmosphere system in a greenhouse Earth. In our ensemble, atmospheric CO2 spans the range 280–3000 ppm, and this variation accounts for over 90 % of the effects on mean air temperature, southern winter high-latitude ocean– land temperature contrast and northern winter tropical–polar temperature difference. However, the variation of precession accounts for over 80 % of the influence of the forcing parameters on the Asian and African monsoon rainfall, and obliquity variation accounts for over 65 % of the effects on winter ocean–land temperature contrast in high northern latitudes and northern summer tropical–polar temperature difference. Our results indicate a bimodal climate sensitivity, with values of 4.36 and 2.54 ◦C, dependent on low or high states of atmospheric CO2 concentration, respectively, with a threshold at approximately 1000 ppm in this model, and due to a saturated vegetation–albedo feedback. Our method gives a quantitative ranking of the influence of each of the forcing parameters on key climatic model outputs, with additional spatial information from singular value decomposition providing insights into likely physical mechanisms. The results demonstrate the importance of orbital variation as an agent of change in climates of the past, and we demonstrate that emulators derived from our modelling output can be used as rapid and efficient surrogates of the full complexity model to provide estimates of climate conditions from any set of forcing parameters

    A model-based constraint on CO<sub>2</sub> fertilisation

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    We derive a constraint on the strength of CO2 fertilisation of the terrestrial biosphere through a “top-down” approach, calibrating Earth system model parameters constrained by the post-industrial increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration. We derive a probabilistic prediction for the globally averaged strength of CO2 fertilisation in nature, for the period 1850 to 2000 AD, implicitly net of other limiting factors such as nutrient availability. The approach yields an estimate that is independent of CO2 enrichment experiments. To achieve this, an essential requirement was the incorpo- ration of a land use change (LUC) scheme into the GENIE Earth system model. Using output from a 671-member ensemble of transient GENIE simulations, we build an emulator of the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration change since the preindustrial period. We use this emulator to sample the 28-dimensional input parameter space. A Bayesian calibration of the emulator output suggests that the increase in gross primary productivity (GPP) in response to a doubling of CO2 from preindustrial values is very likely (90 % confidence) to exceed 20 %, with a most likely value of 40–60 %. It is important to note that we do not represent all of the possible contributing mechanisms to the terrestrial sink. The missing processes are subsumed into our calibration of CO2 fertilisation, which therefore represents the combined effect of CO2 fertilisation and additional missing processes. If the missing processes are a net sink then our estimate represents an upper bound. We derive calibrated estimates of carbon fluxes that are consistent with existing estimates. The present-day land–atmosphere flux (1990–2000) is estimated at −0.7 GTC yr−1 (likely, 66 % confidence, in the range 0.4 to −1.7 GTC yr−1). The present-day ocean–atmosphere flux (1990–2000) is estimated to be −2.3 GTC yr−1 (likely in the range −1.8 to −2.7 GTC yr−1). We estimate cumulative net land emissions over the post-industrial period (land use change emissions net of the CO2 fertilisation and climate sinks) to be 66 GTC, likely to lie in the range 0 to 128 GTC

    Approach to the Continuum Limit of the Quenched Hermitian Wilson-Dirac Operator

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    We investigate the approach to the continuum limit of the spectrum of the Hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator in the supercritical mass region for pure gauge SU(2) and SU(3) backgrounds. For this we study the spectral flow of the Hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator in the range 0m20\le m\le 2. We find that the spectrum has a gap for 0<mm10 < m \le m_1 and that the spectral density at zero, ρ(0;m)\rho(0;m), is non-zero for m1m2m_1\le m\le 2. We find that m10m_1\to 0 and, for m0,ρ(0;m)0m \ne 0, \rho(0;m)\to 0 (exponential in the lattice spacing) as one goes to the continuum limit. We also compute the topological susceptibility and the size distribution of the zero modes. The topological susceptibility scales well in the lattice spacing for both SU(2) and SU(3). The size distribution of the zero modes does not appear to show a peak at a physical scale.Comment: 19 pages revtex with 9 postscript figures included by eps

    Integrating Employment Contracts and Comparisons: What One Can Teach Us about the Other

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    This study examines the events that trigger individuals to consider the social exchanges involved in their employment relationships. Integrating social comparison and psychological contract literature streams, a parallel is drawn between system-referent comparisons and psychological contract evaluations. We hypothesize that self- and other-referent comparisons may be human triggers for engaging in this type of comparison. A variety of structural triggers are also proposed to influence psychological contract evaluations. This field study examines these primary and secondary contract makers as social comparison triggers. Results support the hypotheses that the triggers identified predict psychological contract evaluation and that psychological contract breach is correlated with these evaluations. Implications for future research and managerial practice are discussed

    Scanning laser source and scanning laser detection techniques for different surface crack geometries

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    Standard test samples typically contain simulated defects such as slots machined normal to the surface. However, real defects will not always propagate in this manner; for example, rolling contact fatigue on rails propagates at around 25º to the surface, and corrosion cracking can grow in a branched manner. Therefore, there is a need to understand how ultrasonic surface waves interact with different crack geometries. We present measurements of machined slots inclined at an angle to the surface normal, or with simple branched geometries, using laser ultrasound. Recently, Rayleigh wave enhancements observed when using the scanning laser source technique, where a generation laser is scanned along a sample, have been highlighted for their potential in detecting surface cracks. We show that the enhancement measured with laser detector scanning can give a more significant enhancement when different crack geometries are considered. We discuss the behaviour of an incident Rayleigh wave in the region of an angled defect, and consider mode-conversions which lead to a very large enhancement when the detector is close to the opening of a shallow defect. This process could be used in characterising defects, as well as being an excellent fingerprint of their presence

    Non-contact ultrasonic detection of angled surface defects

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    Non-destructive testing is an important technique, and improvements are constantly needed. Surface defects in metals are not necessarily confined to orientations normal to the sample surface; however, much of the previous work investigating the interaction of ultrasonic surface waves with surface-breaking defects has assumed cracks inclined at 90° to the surface. This paper explores the interaction of Rayleigh waves with cracks which have a wide range of angles and depths relative to the surface, using a non-contact laser generation and detection system. Additional insight is acquired using a 3D model generated using finite element method software. A clear variation of the reflection and transmission coefficients with both crack angle and length is found, in both the out-of-plane and in-plane components. The 3D model is further used to understand the contributions of different wavemodes to B-Scans produced when scanning a sample, to enable understanding of the reflection and transmission behaviour, and help identify angled defects. Knowledge of these effects is essential to correctly gauge the severity of surface cracking
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