1,725 research outputs found

    "Driven to distraction?" Children's experiences of car travel

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    This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in volume, 4, issue 1, pages 59-76 in Mobilities 2009. Copyright @ 2009 Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17450100802657962.Cars have become increasingly significant features in the lives of many children and adults in the UK and elsewhere. Whilst there is a growing body of research considering how adults experience automobility, that is the increasingly central role of cars within societies, there has been little equivalent research exploring children's perspectives. Drawing upon a variety of methods including personal diaries, photographs, in‐depth interviews and surveys amongst schools within Buckinghamshire and North London, the paper contributes to filling this gap in existing research through exploring how cars are not only journey spaces for children, but are also sites for play, relaxation, homework, companionship, technology and the consumption of commodities. Using a Foucauldian analysis of power, insights into wider familial processes relating to mobility are provided by exploring how cars are sites of conflicting power relations between parents and children. The paper also explores how children's everyday experiences of cars were framed by wider sets of power relations, including car corporations which design and manufacture these spaces, and the role of capital which commodifies everyday activities in cars. In doing so, the paper challenges existing research on automobility for only focusing upon adults' experiences of cars and begins to theorise a more inclusive account of automobility which incorporates children and young people

    Domestication as innovation : the entanglement of techniques, technology and chance in the domestication of cereal crops

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    The origins of agriculture involved pathways of domestication in which human behaviours and plant genetic adaptations were entangled. These changes resulted in consequences that were unintended at the start of the process. This paper highlights some of the key innovations in human behaviours, such as soil preparation, harvesting and threshing, and how these were coupled with genetic ‘innovations’ within plant populations. We identify a number of ‘traps’ for early cultivators, including the needs for extra labour expenditure on crop-processing and soil fertility maintenance, but also linked gains in terms of potential crop yields. Compilations of quantitative data across a few different crops for the traits of nonshattering and seed size are discussed in terms of the apparently slow process of domestication, and parallels and differences between different regional pathways are identified. We highlight the need to bridge the gap between a Neolithic archaeobotanical focus on domestication and a focus of later periods on crop-processing activities and labour organization. In addition, archaeobotanical data provide a basis for rethinking previous assumptions about how plant genetic data should be related to the origins of agriculture and we contrast two alternative hypotheses: gradual evolution with low selection pressure versus metastable equilibrium that prolonged the persistence of ‘semi-domesticated’ populations. Our revised understanding of the innovations involved in plant domestication highlight the need for new approaches to collecting, modelling and integrating genetic data and archaeobotanical evidence

    Evolution of 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings in patients following COVID-19 pneumonia: An Initial Investigation

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    Background: The evolution of pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake is unknown in patients with pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 pneumonia) and in those with persistent respiratory symptoms post-COVID-19 termed Post-COVID-19 Lung-Disease (PCLD). The aim of this study was to assess the temporal evolution of pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake and identify a potential role for the use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging in the management of these patients. Methods: Clinical data and CT imaging of all patients that underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging at UCLH, Lon-don during the UK pandemic were reviewed to find evidence of active or recovered SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results of PCR tests were used where available. Patients were divided in to acute (early and late) COVID-19 pneumonia, PCLD and asymptomatic recovery. 18F-FDG uptake in the lungs was measured as a target-to-background ratio (SUVmax/SUVmin) TBRlung which was compared to temporal-stage and plasma CRP. Results: There were 50 patients in total (median 61y, range 18-87y, 32-male): 23 incidental acute COVID-19 pneumonia cases identified retrospectively (8 Early, 15 Late), 9 asymptomatic recovered patients, and 18 cases performed for PCLD. In acute COVID-19 patients <3 weeks since disease onset TBRlung was strongly correlated with time since disease onset (rs=0.81, p<0.001)

    Modeling resilience and sustainability in ancient agricultural systems

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    The reasons why people adopt unsustainable agricultural practices, and the ultimate environmental implications of those practices, remain incompletely understood in the present world. Archaeology, however, offers unique datasets on coincident cultural and ecological change, and their social and environmental effects. This article applies concepts derived from ecological resilience thinking to assess the sustainability of agricultural practices as a result of long-term interactions between political, economic, and environmental systems. Using the urban center of Gordion, in central Turkey, as a case study, it is possible to identify mismatched social and ecological processes on temporal, spatial, and organizational scales, which help to resolve thresholds of resilience. Results of this analysis implicate temporal and spatial mismatches as a cause for local environmental degradation, and increasing extralocal economic pressures as an ultimate cause for the adoption of unsustainable land-use practices. This analysis suggests that a research approach that integrates environmental archaeology with a resilience perspective has considerable potential for explicating regional patterns of agricultural change and environmental degradation in the past

    The Paradox of Power in CSR: A Case Study on Implementation

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    Purpose Although current literature assumes positive outcomes for stakeholders resulting from an increase in power associated with CSR, this research suggests that this increase can lead to conflict within organizations, resulting in almost complete inactivity on CSR. Methods A single in-depth case study, focusing on power as an embedded concept. Results Empirical evidence is used to demonstrate how some actors use CSR to improve their own positions within an organization. Resource dependence theory is used to highlight why this may be a more significant concern for CSR. Conclusions Increasing power for CSR has the potential to offer actors associated with it increased personal power, and thus can attract opportunistic actors with little interest in realizing the benefits of CSR for the company and its stakeholders. Thus power can be an impediment to furthering CSR strategy and activities at the individual and organizational level

    Sabotage in Contests: A Survey

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    A contest is a situation in which individuals expend irretrievable resources to win valuable prize(s). ‘Sabotage’ is a deliberate and costly act of damaging a rival’s' likelihood of winning the contest. Sabotage can be observed in, e.g., sports, war, promotion tournaments, political or marketing campaigns. In this article, we provide a model and various perspectives on such sabotage activities and review the economics literature analyzing the act of sabotage in contests. We discuss the theories and evidence highlighting the means of sabotage, why sabotage occurs, and the effects of sabotage on individual players and on overall welfare, along with possible mechanisms to reduce sabotage. We note that most sabotage activities are aimed at the ablest player, the possibility of sabotage reduces productive effort exerted by the players, and sabotage may lessen the effectiveness of public policies, such as affirmative action, or information revelation in contests. We discuss various policies that a designer may employ to counteract sabotage activities. We conclude by pointing out some areas of future research

    Differences in brain volume between metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese children: the role of fitness

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    The aim of this study was to examine whether metabolically healthy overweight/obese children have greater global and regional gray matter volumes than their metabolically unhealthy peers. We further examined the association between gray matter volume and academic achievement, along with the role of cardiorespiratory fitness in these associations. A total of 97 overweight/obese children (10.0 +/- 1.2 years) participated. We classified children as metabolically healthy/unhealthy based on metabolic syndrome cut-offs. Global and regional brain volumes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Academic achievement was assessed using the Woodcock-Munoz standardized test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) children had greater regional gray matter volume compared to those who were metabolically unhealthy (MUO) (all p 0.05). The findings of the present study support that metabolically healthy overweight/obese children have greater gray matter volume compared to those that are metabolically unhealthy, which is in turn related to better academic achievement. However, cardiorespiratory fitness seems to explain, at least partially, these findings.The ActiveBrains project was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and the 'Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)' (DEP2013-47540, DEP2016-79512-R, DEP2017-91544-EXP and RYC-2011-09011). CC-S are supported by the Government of Andalusian, Integrated Territorial Initiative 2014-2020 for the province of Cadiz (PI-0002-2017) and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (FJC2018-037925-I). IE-C are supported by the Alicia Koplowitz Foundation and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (RTI2018-095284-J-100). JHM and JM-G are supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (FPU15/02645 and FPU14/06837, respectively). JVR is supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (FJCI-2017-33396). PH was supported by a grant from the Strategic Research Area Health Care Science, Karolinska Institutet/Umea University. Additional funding was obtained from the University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigacion 2016, Excellence actions: Units of Excellence; Scientific Excellence Unit on Exercise and Health (UCEES). Junta de Andalucia, Consejeria de Conocimiento, Investigacion y Universidades and European Regional Development Funds (ref. SOMM17/6107/UGR). In addition, funding was provided by the SAMID III network, RETICS, funded by the PN I + D + I 2017-2021 (Spain), ISCIII-Sub-Directorate General for Research Assessment and Promotion, the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (Ref. RD16/0022), the EXERNET Research Network on Exercise and Health in Special Populations (DEP2005-00046/ACTI) and the European Union's 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 667302

    Seeking legitimacy through CSR: Institutional Pressures and Corporate Responses of Multinationals in Sri Lanka

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    Arguably, the corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices of multinational enterprises (MNEs) are influenced by a wide range of both internal and external factors. Perhaps most critical among the exogenous forces operating on MNEs are those exerted by state and other key institutional actors in host countries. Crucially, academic research conducted to date offers little data about how MNEs use their CSR activities to strategically manage their relationship with those actors in order to gain legitimisation advantages in host countries. This paper addresses that gap by exploring interactions between external institutional pressures and firm-level CSR activities, which take the form of community initiatives, to examine how MNEs develop their legitimacy-seeking policies and practices. In focusing on a developing country, Sri Lanka, this paper provides valuable insights into how MNEs instrumentally utilise community initiatives in a country where relationship-building with governmental and other powerful non-governmental actors can be vitally important for the long-term viability of the business. Drawing on neo-institutional theory and CSR literature, this paper examines and contributes to the embryonic but emerging debate about the instrumental and political implications of CSR. The evidence presented and discussed here reveals the extent to which, and the reasons why, MNEs engage in complex legitimacy-seeking relationships with Sri Lankan institutions