12,558 research outputs found

    The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey : giant planet and brown dwarf demographics from 10 to 100 au

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    We present a statistical analysis of the first 300 stars observed by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. This subsample includes six detected planets and three brown dwarfs; from these detections and our contrast curves we infer the underlying distributions of substellar companions with respect to their mass, semimajor axis, and host stellar mass. We uncover a strong correlation between planet occurrence rate and host star mass, with stars M* > 1.5 M⊙ more likely to host planets with masses between 2 and 13MJup and semimajor axes of 3–100 au at 99.92% confidence. We fit a double power-law model in planet mass (m) and semimajor axis (a) for planet populations around high-mass stars (M* > 1.5 M⊙) of the form d2N/(dm da) ∝ mα aβ, finding α = −2.4 ± 0.8 and β = −2.0 ± 0.5, and an integrated occurrence rate of 9+5-4% between 5–13MJup and 10–100 au. A significantly lower occurrence rate is obtained for brown dwarfs around all stars, with 0.8+0.8-0.5% of stars hosting a brown dwarf companion between 13–80MJup and 10–100 au. Brown dwarfs also appear to be distributed differently in mass and semimajor axis compared to giant planets; whereas giant planets follow a bottom-heavy mass distribution and favor smaller semimajor axes, brown dwarfs exhibit just the opposite behaviors. Comparing to studies of short-period giant planets from the radial velocity method, our results are consistent with a peak in occurrence of giant planets between ∼1 and 10 au. We discuss how these trends, including the preference of giant planets for high-mass host stars, point to formation of giant planets by core/pebble accretion, and formation of brown dwarfs by gravitational instability.Peer reviewe

    Coronary Calcification In Patients Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndromes: Insights From The Matrix Trial.

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    OBJECTIVE The role of coronary calcification on clinical outcomes among different revascularization strategies in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has been rarely investigated. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the role of coronary calcification, detected by coronary angiography, in the whole spectrum of patients presenting with acute ACS. METHODS The present study was a post hoc analysis of the MATRIX program. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke up to 365 days. RESULTS Among the 8,404 patients randomized in the MATRIX trial, data about coronary calcification was available in 7446 (88.6%) and therefore were included in this post-hoc analysis. Overall, 875 patients (11.7%) presented with severe coronary calcification, while 6,571 patients (88.3%) did not present severe coronary calcification on coronary angiography. Fewer patients with severe coronary calcification underwent percutaneous coronary intervention whereas coronary artery bypass grafting or medical therapy-only was more frequent compared with patients without severe calcification. At 1-year follow-up, MACE occurred in 237 (27.1%) patients with severe calcified coronary lesions and 985 (15%) patients without severe coronary calcified lesions [HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.66-2.20, p < 0.001]. All-cause mortality was 8.6% in patients presenting with and 3.7% in those without severe coronary calcification (HR 2.38, 1.84-3.09; p < 0.001). Patients with severe coronary calcification incurred higher rate of MI (20.1% vs 11.5%, HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.53-2.1, p < 0.001) and similar rate of stroke (0.8% vs 0.6%, HR 1.35; 95% CI 0.61-3.02, p = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS Patients with ACS and severe coronary calcification, as compared to those without, are associated with worse clinical outcomes irrespective of the management strategy

    Effect of centre volume on pathological outcomes and postoperative complications after surgery for colorectal cancer: results of a multicentre national study

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    Background: The association between volume, complications and pathological outcomes is still under debate regarding colorectal cancer surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the association between centre volume and severe complications, mortality, less-than-radical oncologic surgery, and indications for neoadjuvant therapy.Methods: Retrospective analysis of 16,883 colorectal cancer cases from 80 centres (2018-2021). Outcomes: 30-day mortality; Clavien-Dindo grade >2 complications; removal of >= 12 lymph nodes; non-radical resection; neoadjuvant therapy. Quartiles of hospital volumes were classified as LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, and VERY HIGH. Independent predictors, both overall and for rectal cancer, were evaluated using logistic regression including age, gender, AJCC stage and cancer site.Results: LOW-volume centres reported a higher rate of severe postoperative complications (OR 1.50, 95% c.i. 1.15-1.096, P = 0.003). The rate of >= 12 lymph nodes removed in LOW-volume (OR 0.68, 95% c.i. 0.56-0.85, P = 12 lymph nodes removed was lower in LOW-volume than in VERY HIGH-volume centres (OR 0.57, 95% c.i. 0.41-0.80, P = 0.001). A lower rate of neoadjuvant chemoradiation was associated with HIGH (OR 0.66, 95% c.i. 0.56-0.77, P < 0.001), MEDIUM (OR 0.75, 95% c.i. 0.60-0.92, P = 0.006), and LOW (OR 0.70, 95% c.i. 0.52-0.94, P = 0.019) volume centres (vs. VERY HIGH).Conclusion: Colorectal cancer surgery in low-volume centres is at higher risk of suboptimal management, poor postoperative outcomes, and less-than-adequate oncologic resections. Centralisation of rectal cancer cases should be taken into consideration to optimise the outcomes

    The Brescia Internationally Validated European Guidelines on Minimally Invasive Pancreatic Surgery (EGUMIPS)

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    Objective: To develop and update evidence-based and consensus-based guidelines on laparoscopic and robotic pancreatic surgery. Summary Background Data: Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery (MIPS), including laparoscopic and robotic surgery, is complex and technically demanding. Minimizing the risk for patients requires stringent, evidence-based guidelines. Since the International Miami Guidelines on MIPS in 2019, new developments and key publications have been reported, necessitating an update. Methods: Evidence-based guidelines on 22 topics in 8 domains were proposed: terminology, indications, patients, procedures, surgical techniques and instrumentation, assessment tools, implementation and training, and artificial intelligence. The Brescia Internationally Validated European Guidelines on Minimally Invasive Pancreatic Surgery (EGUMIPS, September 2022) used the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology to assess the evidence and develop guideline recommendations, the Delphi method to establish consensus on the recommendations among the Expert Committee, and the AGREE II-GRS tool for guideline quality assessment and external validation by a Validation Committee. Results: Overall, 27 European experts, 6 international experts, 22 international Validation Committee members, 11 Jury Committee members, 18 Research Committee members, and 121 registered attendees of the 2-day meeting were involved in the development and validation of the guidelines. In total, 98 recommendations were developed, including 33 on laparoscopic, 34 on robotic, and 31 on general MIPS, covering 22 topics in 8 domains. Out of 98 recommendations, 97 reached at least 80% consensus among the experts and congress attendees, and all recommendations were externally validated by the Validation Committee. Conclusions: The EGUMIPS evidence-based guidelines on laparoscopic and robotic MIPS can be applied in current clinical practice to provide guidance to patients, surgeons, policy-makers, and medical societies.</p

    A Race Track Trapped-Ion Quantum Processor

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    We describe and benchmark a new quantum charge-coupled device (QCCD) trapped-ion quantum computer based on a linear trap with periodic boundary conditions, which resembles a race track. The new system successfully incorporates several technologies crucial to future scalability, including electrode broadcasting, multi-layer RF routing, and magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading, while maintaining, and in some cases exceeding, the gate fidelities of previous QCCD systems. The system is initially operated with 32 qubits, but future upgrades will allow for more. We benchmark the performance of primitive operations, including an average state preparation and measurement error of 1.6(1)×103\times 10^{-3}, an average single-qubit gate infidelity of 2.5(3)×1052.5(3)\times 10^{-5}, and an average two-qubit gate infidelity of 1.84(5)×1031.84(5)\times 10^{-3}. The system-level performance of the quantum processor is assessed with mirror benchmarking, linear cross-entropy benchmarking, a quantum volume measurement of QV=216\mathrm{QV}=2^{16}, and the creation of 32-qubit entanglement in a GHZ state. We also tested application benchmarks including Hamiltonian simulation, QAOA, error correction on a repetition code, and dynamics simulations using qubit reuse. We also discuss future upgrades to the new system aimed at adding more qubits and capabilities.Comment: 24 pages, 24 figure

    Search for diphoton resonances in the mass range from 150 to 850 GeV in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV