294 research outputs found

    The Geoff Egan Memorial Lecture 2011. Artefacts, art and artifice: reconsidering iconographic sources for archaeological objects in early modern Europe

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    A first systematic analysis of historic domestic material culture depicted in contemporaneous Western painting and prints, c.1400-1800. Drawing on an extensive data set, the paper proposes to methodologies and hermeneutics for historical analysis and archaeological correspondence

    Thermal comfort investigation of an outdoor air-conditioned area in a hot and arid environment

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    Thermal comfort in hot and arid outdoor environments is an industrial challenging field. An outdoor air-conditioned area was designed and built to host sport and social events during summers 2014 and 2015 in Qatar. This article presents a thermal comfort analysis of the outdoor air-conditioned area using computational fluid dynamics, on-site spectators surveys, and on-spot climatic measurements. The study utilized computational fluid dynamics to develop a thermal comfort model of the outdoor air-conditioned area to predict the thermal comfort of the occupants. Five different thermal comfort indices; mean comfort vote, cooling power index, wet-bulb globe temperature index, Humidex, discomfort index, were utilized to assess the thermal comfort of spectators within the conditioned space. The indices utilized different on site measurements of meteorological data and on-site interviews. In comparison to the mean comfort vote of the sampled survey, all thermal comfort indices underestimated the actual thermal comfort percentage except the wet-bulb globe temperature index that overestimated the comfort percentage. The computational fluid dynamics results reasonably predicted most of the thermal comfort indices values. The computational fluid dynamics results overestimated the comfort percentage of mean comfort vote, wet-bulb globe temperature index, and discomfort index, while the thermal comfort percentage was underestimated as indicated by the cooling power index, and Humidex

    The Mannose Receptor (CD206) is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in the detection of the infective stage of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni and modulates IFNγ production.

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    In this study, infective larvae of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni were shown to contain a large number of glycosylated components specific for the Mannose Receptor (MR; CD206), which is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) of the innate immune system. MR ligands were particularly rich in excretory/secretory (E/S) material released during transformation of cercariae into schistosomula, a process critical for infection of the host. E/S material from carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE)-labelled cercariae showed enhanced binding by cells lines that over-express the MR. Conversely, uptake was significantly lower by bone marrow-derived macrophages (MΦ) from MR(-/-) mice, although they were more active as judged by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and CD40 expression. After natural percutaneous infection of MR(-/-) mice with CFDA-SE-labelled parasites, there were fewer cells in the skin and draining lymph nodes that were CFDA-SE(+) compared with wild-type mice, implying reduced uptake and presentation of larval parasite antigen. However, antigen-specific proliferation of skin draining lymph node cells was significantly enhanced and they secreted markedly elevated levels of IFNγ but decreased levels of IL-4. In conclusion, we show that the MR on mononuclear phagocytic cells, which are plentiful in the skin, plays a significant role in internalising E/S material released by the invasive stages of the parasite which in turn modulates their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the absence of the MR, antigen-specific CD4(+) cells are Th1 biased, suggesting that ligation of the MR by glycosylated E/S material released by schistosome larvae modulates the production of CD4(+) cell specific IFNγ

    Rapid intraoperative insulin assay: a novel method to differentiate insulinoma from nesidioblastosis in the pediatric patient

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    Introduction: Hyperinsulinism is the most common cause of recurrent and persistent hypoglycemia in infancy and childhood. Causes can include nesidioblastosis, pancreatic islet cell tumors such as insulinoma, and associations with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Although new, improved imaging techniques have allowed for more precise preoperative localization of insulinomas, the differentiation of nesidioblastosis and insulinoma, particularly in children, can be challenging. To improve intraoperative localization and confirmation of successful resection of insulinoma, a novel hormonal assay, the rapid intraoperative insulin assay, is reported for the first time in a pediatric patient. This intraoperative radioimmunoassay for insulin yields results within several minutes and confirms complete resection of insulinoma. Case description: We present a case of pancreatic insulinoma in a child with symptoms of severe hypoglycemia, causing seizures. The insulinoma was enucleated laparoscopically, and rapid intra-operative insulin assay used to determine the success of the procedure. Discussion and evaluation: This rapid intra-operative test provides a valuable adjunct for determining complete excision in complicated cases of recurrent or questionable insulinoma. Although not a common problem, for pediatric patients in whom the diagnosis is not clear, this test may provide a novel approach to confirming disease. Conclusion: We propose the use of this assay in facilitating intra-operative resection and confirmation of complete excision in pediatric patients. This population may especially benefit from this novel assay to confirm complete resection and to differentiate multiple etiologies of hyperinsulinism

    Case Reports1. A Late Presentation of Loeys-Dietz Syndrome: Beware of TGFβ Receptor Mutations in Benign Joint Hypermobility

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    Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) and dissections are not uncommon causes of sudden death in young adults. Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare, recently described, autosomal dominant, connective tissue disease characterized by aggressive arterial aneurysms, resulting from mutations in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) receptor genes TGFBR1 and TGFBR2. Mean age at death is 26.1 years, most often due to aortic dissection. We report an unusually late presentation of LDS, diagnosed following elective surgery in a female with a long history of joint hypermobility. Methods: A 51-year-old Caucasian lady complained of chest pain and headache following a dural leak from spinal anaesthesia for an elective ankle arthroscopy. CT scan and echocardiography demonstrated a dilated aortic root and significant aortic regurgitation. MRA demonstrated aortic tortuosity, an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and aneurysms in the left renal and right internal mammary arteries. She underwent aortic root repair and aortic valve replacement. She had a background of long-standing joint pains secondary to hypermobility, easy bruising, unusual fracture susceptibility and mild bronchiectasis. She had one healthy child age 32, after which she suffered a uterine prolapse. Examination revealed mild Marfanoid features. Uvula, skin and ophthalmological examination was normal. Results: Fibrillin-1 testing for Marfan syndrome (MFS) was negative. Detection of a c.1270G > C (p.Gly424Arg) TGFBR2 mutation confirmed the diagnosis of LDS. Losartan was started for vascular protection. Conclusions: LDS is a severe inherited vasculopathy that usually presents in childhood. It is characterized by aortic root dilatation and ascending aneurysms. There is a higher risk of aortic dissection compared with MFS. Clinical features overlap with MFS and Ehlers Danlos syndrome Type IV, but differentiating dysmorphogenic features include ocular hypertelorism, bifid uvula and cleft palate. Echocardiography and MRA or CT scanning from head to pelvis is recommended to establish the extent of vascular involvement. Management involves early surgical intervention, including early valve-sparing aortic root replacement, genetic counselling and close monitoring in pregnancy. Despite being caused by loss of function mutations in either TGFβ receptor, paradoxical activation of TGFβ signalling is seen, suggesting that TGFβ antagonism may confer disease modifying effects similar to those observed in MFS. TGFβ antagonism can be achieved with angiotensin antagonists, such as Losartan, which is able to delay aortic aneurysm development in preclinical models and in patients with MFS. Our case emphasizes the importance of timely recognition of vasculopathy syndromes in patients with hypermobility and the need for early surgical intervention. It also highlights their heterogeneity and the potential for late presentation. Disclosures: The authors have declared no conflicts of interes

    Learning to learn: improving attainment, closing the gap at Key Stage 3

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    In 2010, a comprehensive secondary school in the south of England implemented a whole-school approach to ‘learning to learn’ (L2L). Drawing on a range of evidence-based practices, a team of teachers worked collaboratively to design and deliver a taught L2L curriculum to all students throughout Key Stage 3. In total, the first cohort of students (n = 118) received more than 400 taught lessons throughout years 7–9. The impact of L2L on student attainment at Sea View was evaluated over those 3 years, using the pre-L2L cohort as a matched control group (n = 148). By the end of year 9, a significantly higher proportion of L2L students were either hitting or exceeding their target grades, compared with the control group. There was also a significant closing of the attainment gap between students eligible for the pupil premium and their peers (2%, vs. 25% in the control group). Key features of the L2L approach at Sea View are considered in terms of similarities and differences with other L2L approaches. Conclusions are drawn that the success of this approach lies in the combination of multiple effective practices. Recommendations for further research and development of the field are proposed

    fMRI BOLD signal changes in elite swimmers while viewing videos of personal failure

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    Athletes who fail are susceptible to negative affect (NA) and impaired future performance. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and limbic activations following negative mood provocation. Little is known about the neural correlates of negative self-reference (SR), especially in athletes. Even less is known about the neural correlates of the effects of cognitive intervention (CI) in modifying negative SR and NA in this population. In an fMRI study, 13 athletes watched a video of their own career-threatening defeat in two controlled blocks. Between fMRI blocks, they received a 20-min CI designed to assist in event reappraisal and planning for future performance. Relative increases post-CI were seen in premotor (BA6) and sensorimotor (BA4/1) cortices. Correlated with mood ratings, relatively higher pre-CI levels were seen in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC; BA10), the right dorsolateral PFC (BA45), the anterior cingulate, and the right parahippocampus. CI may counteract the detrimental effects of NA and negative SR on premotor and motor activity.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/83878/1/fMRI-BOLD-signal-changes-in-elite-swimmers-while-viewing-videos-of-personal-failure.pd
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