1,561 research outputs found

    Influencing the decline of lung function in COPD: use of pharmacotherapy

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    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and deadly disease. One of the hallmarks of COPD is an accelerated decline in lung function, as measured by spirometry. Inflammation, oxidative stress and other pathways are hypothesized to be important in this deterioration. Because progressive airflow obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, a major goal of COPD treatment has been to slow or prevent the accelerated decline in lung function. Until recently, the only known effective intervention was smoking cessation. However, newly reported large clinical trials have shown that commonly used medications may help slow the rate of lung function decline. The effect of these medications is modest (and thus required such large, expensive trials) and to be of clinical benefit, therapy would likely need to start early in the course of disease and be prolonged. Such a treatment strategy aimed at preservation of lung function would need to be balanced against the side effects and costs of prolonged therapy. A variety of newer classes of medications may help target other pathophysiologically important pathways, and could be used in the future to prevent lung function decline in COPD

    Is the way to man's heart (and lung) through the abdomen?

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    Intra-abdominal hypertension is increasingly recognized to be both prevalent and clinically important in medical and surgical intensive care units. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) can impact organ function throughout the body, and it can also complicate standard measurements used in intensive care units. The article by Krebs and colleagues reports the effect of IAP on respiratory function, gas exchange and hemodynamic function. Their results show a relatively small effect of modestly elevated IAP on these variables in their patient population. However, their work raises several questions for clinicians and researchers regarding the pathophysiology and management of IAP

    The Occurrence of Cheyne–Stokes Respiration in Congestive Heart Failure: The Effect of Age

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    Introduction: Up to 50% of adults with congestive heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular dysfunction demonstrate Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR), although the mechanisms remain controversial. Because CSR has been minimally studied in children, we sought to assess the prevalence of CSR in children with low and high output cardiac failure. We hypothesized that the existence of CSR only in children with low output CHF would support the importance of circulatory delay as a CSR mechanism. Methods: Thirty patients participated: 10 children with CHF, 10 matched children with no heart disease, and 10 adults with CHF. All participants underwent an in-laboratory polysomnographic sleep study. Results: CHF children's average age (Β±SEM) was 3.6 ± 2.1 years vs. 3.7 ± 2 years in the age-matched control group. The average ejection fraction of three children with low output CHF was 22 ± 6.8%. The remaining seven had normal-high cardiac output. Compared to control children, CHF children were tachypneic and tachycardic during stable sleep (55.1 ± 6.7 vs. 26.9 ± 3 breath/min and 127.6 ± 8.7 vs. 97.6 ± 6.9 beats/min, respectively, p < 0.05 for both). They had shorter total sleep time (195 ± 49 vs. 373 ± 16 min, p < 0.05) with a low sleep efficiency of 65.6 ± 6%. None of the children had a pattern of CSR at any time during the studies while the adults with CHF had 40% prevalence of CSR. Conclusions: The complete absence of CSR in our sample of children with CHF compared to the 40% prevalence in the adults with CHF we studied, suggests that CSR may be an age-dependent phenomenon. Thus, we speculate that regardless of the exact mechanism which drives CSR, age is an over-riding factor

    Inherent vs. Induced Loop Gain Abnormalities in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Unstable ventilatory chemoreflex control, quantified as loop gain, is recognized as one of four key pathophysiological traits that contribute to cause obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Novel treatments aimed at reducing loop gain are being investigated, with the intention that future OSA treatment may be tailored to the individual's specific cause of apnea. However, few studies have evaluated loop gain in OSA and non-OSA controls and those that have provide little evidence to support an inherent abnormality in either overall chemical loop gain in OSA patients vs. non-OSA controls, or its components (controller and plant gain). However, intermittent hypoxia may induce high controller gain through neuroplastic changes to chemoreflex control, and may also decrease plant gain via oxidative stress induced inflammation and reduced lung function. The inherent difficulties and limitations with loop gain measurements are discussed and areas where further research are required are highlighted, as only by understanding the mechanisms underlying OSA are new therapeutic approaches likely to emerge in OSA

    Untreated Sleep-Disordered Breathing: Links to Aging-Related Decline in Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

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    Background: Increasing age is associated with a decline in cognition and motor skills, while at the same time exacerbating one's risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA-related cognitive deficits are highly prevalent and can affect various memory systems including overnight memory consolidation on a motor sequence task. Thus, the aim of our study was to examine the effect of aging on sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with and without OSA. Methods: We studied 44 patients (19–68 years) who had been referred by a physician for a baseline polysomnography (PSG) evaluation. Based on their PSG, patients were assigned either to the OSA group (AHI>5/h), or control (Non-OSA) group (AHI<5/h). All subjects performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and the Motor Sequence Learning Task (MST) in the evening and again in the morning after their PSG. Results: Despite similar learning in the evening, OSA subjects showed significantly less overnight improvement on the MST, both for immediate (OSA βˆ’2.7%Β±2.8% vs. controls 12.2%Β±3.5%; p = 0.002) and plateau improvement (OSA 4.9%Β±2.3% vs. controls 21.1%Β±4.0%; p = 0.001). Within the OSA group, there was a significant negative correlation between overnight MST improvement and age (r2 = 0.3; p = 0.01), an effect that was not observed in the Non-OSA group (r2 = 0.08; p = 0.23) Conclusions: Consistent with previous research, healthy sleepers demonstrated a higher degree of sleep-dependent overnight improvement on the MST, an effect not mitigated by increasing age. However, the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an aging-related cognitive deficit, otherwise not present in individuals without OSA. As other research has linked the presence of OSA to a higher likelihood of developing dementia, future studies are necessary to examine if the inhibition of memory consolidation is tied to the onset of neurodegenerative disease

    Methods of Blood Pressure Measurement in the ICU*

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    OBJECTIVE:: Minimal clinical research has investigated the significance of different blood pressure monitoring techniques in the ICU and whether systolic vs. mean blood pressures should be targeted in therapeutic protocols and in defining clinical study cohorts. The objectives of this study are to compare real-world invasive arterial blood pressure with noninvasive blood pressure, and to determine if differences between the two techniques have clinical implications. DESIGN:: We conducted a retrospective study comparing invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure measurements using a large ICU database. We performed pairwise comparison between concurrent measures of invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure. We studied the association of systolic and mean invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure with acute kidney injury, and with ICU mortality. SETTING:: Adult intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS:: Adult patients admitted to intensive care units between 2001 and 2007. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Pairwise analysis of 27,022 simultaneously measured invasive arterial blood pressure/noninvasive blood pressure pairs indicated that noninvasive blood pressure overestimated systolic invasive arterial blood pressure during hypotension. Analysis of acute kidney injury and ICU mortality involved 1,633 and 4,957 patients, respectively. Our results indicated that hypotensive systolic noninvasive blood pressure readings were associated with a higher acute kidney injury prevalence (p = 0.008) and ICU mortality (p < 0.001) than systolic invasive arterial blood pressure in the same range (≀70 mm Hg). Noninvasive blood pressure and invasive arterial blood pressure mean arterial pressures showed better agreement; acute kidney injury prevalence (p = 0.28) and ICU mortality (p = 0.76) associated with hypotensive mean arterial pressure readings (≀60 mm Hg) were independent of measurement technique. CONCLUSIONS:: Clinically significant discrepancies exist between invasive and noninvasive systolic blood pressure measurements during hypotension. Mean blood pressure from both techniques may be interpreted in a consistent manner in assessing patients' prognosis. Our results suggest that mean rather than systolic blood pressure is the pre ferred metric in the ICU to guide therapy.National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (U.S.) (Grant R01EB001659

    Transfer Entropy Estimation and Directional Coupling Change Detection in Biomedical Time Series

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    Background: The detection of change in magnitude of directional coupling between two non-linear time series is a common subject of interest in the biomedical domain, including studies involving the respiratory chemoreflex system. Although transfer entropy is a useful tool in this avenue, no study to date has investigated how different transfer entropy estimation methods perform in typical biomedical applications featuring small sample size and presence of outliers. Methods: With respect to detection of increased coupling strength, we compared three transfer entropy estimation techniques using both simulated time series and respiratory recordings from lambs. The following estimation methods were analyzed: fixed-binning with ranking, kernel density estimation (KDE), and the Darbellay-Vajda (D-V) adaptive partitioning algorithm extended to three dimensions. In the simulated experiment, sample size was varied from 50 to 200, while coupling strength was increased. In order to introduce outliers, the heavy-tailed Laplace distribution was utilized. In the lamb experiment, the objective was to detect increased respiratoryrelated chemosensitivity to O[subscript 2] and CO[subscript 2] induced by a drug, domperidone. Specifically, the separate influence of end-tidal PO[subscript 2] and PCO[subscript 2] on minute ventilation ([dot over V][subscript E]) before and after administration of domperidone was analyzed. Results: In the simulation, KDE detected increased coupling strength at the lowest SNR among the three methods. In the lamb experiment, D-V partitioning resulted in the statistically strongest increase in transfer entropy post-domperidone for PO2 β†’ [dot over V][subscript E]. In addition, D-V partitioning was the only method that could detect an increase in transfer entropy for PCO[subscript 2] β†’ [dot over V][subscript E], in agreement with experimental findings. Conclusions: Transfer entropy is capable of detecting directional coupling changes in non-linear biomedical time series analysis featuring a small number of observations and presence of outliers. The results of this study suggest that fixed-binning, even with ranking, is too primitive, and although there is no clear winner between KDE and D-V partitioning, the reader should note that KDE requires more computational time and extensive parameter selection than D-V partitioning. We hope this study provides a guideline for selection of an appropriate transfer entropy estimation method.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant R01-EB001659)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant R01- HL73146)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant HL085188-01A2)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant HL090897-01A2)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant K24 HL093218-01A1)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Cooperative Agreement U01-EB-008577)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Training Grant T32-HL07901))American Heart Association (Grant 0840159N
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