10 research outputs found

    The first 30 nt of the nanochromosomes proximal to the telomeres have >8-fold lower coverage of 26–28 nt small RNAs relative to the rest of the nanochromosome.

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    <p>Graphic at the top shows a nanochromosome (rectangle) with 20 nt telomere sequence in gray shadow. 27 nt small RNAs for the plus strand of the nanochromosome are indicated as arrows above the nanochromosome. The average density of the location of 5β€² ends of plus strand-aligning 26–28 nt RNAs was determined over 500 positions (in 20 bins of 25 bp each, shown by tick marks) relative to the 5β€² (right side, positive values) and 3β€² (left side, negative values) ends of 10,002 complete nanochromosomes. These densities were plotted relative to a uniform distribution of the aligned 26–28 nt RNAs over the same sets of 500 positions on the same nanochromosomes. A dotted line at 20 nt from either end is included on both sides of the zero point to indicate the average telomere length of 20 nt on the nanochromosome sequences to which these data were plotted. The shaded gray area, 27 nt wide, is included on the plot from the nanochromosome 3β€² end because the plus strand-aligning reads would have 27 nt of sequence between their plotted 5β€² end and the 3β€² end of the nanochromosome. When minus strand-aligning reads were analyzed by this same method, a mirror image plot was obtained that is otherwise identical to the graph for plus end reads (not shown).</p

    Mating in <i>Oxytricha trifallax</i> leads to production of a class of 27 nt RNAs.

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    <p>Total RNA was purified from vegetative <i>Oxytricha trifallax</i> (lanes 1–4) or at various time points after mixing together complementary mating strains (lanes 5–11). In addition, total RNA was purified from strain ALXC9 treated under identical conditions as a mating for 24 hrs (lane 12 - Mock 24hr). Total RNA was phosphatase treated followed by 5β€² end labeling with <sup>32</sup>P, separated on a 15% polyacrylamide denaturing gel and visualized using a PhosphorImager. Sizes from Decade RNA 10 nt Ladder (Ambion) are indicated at left. Positions of small RNAs of interest are indicated at right. Lanes 1–11 directly correspond to RNA preparations used to prepare libraries for Illumina sequencing listed in the same order in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042371#pone-0042371-t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>.</p

    Thermal flow associated with low level transient heating on the surface of the skin.

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    <p>(<b>a</b>) Infrared image during heating at a single thermal actuator in an array device on the skin. (<b>b</b>) Finite element modelling results for the distribution of temperature during rapid, low level heating at an isolated actuator on the skin, after 1.2 s of heating at a power of 3.7 mW mm<sup>-2</sup>. (<b>c</b>) Spatial map of the rise in temperature due to transient heating sequentially in each element in the array. The solid black lines are experimental data; the red dashed lines are best fit calculations. The strong rise shown in upper leftmost element results from local delamination of the device from the skin. (<b>d</b>) Experimental data (solid lines) and best fit calculations (dashed lines) for the cheek (black) and heel (blue), along with extracted thermal transport properties.</p

    Anisotropic convective effects associated with near surface blood flow.

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    <p>(<b>a</b>) Spatial map of changes in temperature at each element for a device located at the volar aspect of the wrist. The position of the thermal actuator coincides with a large vein. (<b>b</b>) Difference in temperature between element 11 (E11) and element 3 (E3). The results show effects of anisotropic heat flow in the wrist, compared to isotropic distributions typically observed on a region of the body such as the cheek. The vertical red dashed lines correspond to initiation and termination of heating, respectively.</p