29 research outputs found

    Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the Natural Resistance Associated-Macrophage Protein3natural Resistance Associated-Macrophage Protein4 Double Mutant

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    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids

    ARGONAUTE4 Is Required for Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis[W]

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    Here, we report the characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana ocp11 (for overexpressor of cationic peroxidase11) mutant, in which a ő≤-glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of the H2O2-responsive Ep5C promoter is constitutively expressed. ocp11 plants show enhanced disease susceptibility to the virulent bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (P.s.t. DC3000) and also to the avirulent P.s.t. DC3000 carrying the effector avrRpm1 gene. In addition, ocp11 plants are also compromised in resistance to the nonhost pathogen P. syringae pv tabaci. Genetic and molecular analyses reveal that ocp11 plants are not affected in salicylic acid perception. We cloned OCP11 and show that it encodes ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4), a component of the pathway that mediates the transcriptional gene silencing associated with small interfering RNAs that direct DNA methylation at specific loci, a phenomenon known as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). Thus, we renamed our ocp11 mutant ago4-2, as it represents a different allele to the previously characterized recessive ago4-1. Both mutants decrease the extent of DNA cytosine methylation at CpNpG and CpHpH (asymmetric) positions present at different DNA loci and show commonalities in all of the molecular and phenotypic aspects that we have considered. Interestingly, we show that AGO4 works independently of other components of the RdDM pathway in mediating resistance to P.s.t. DC3000, and loss of function in other components of the pathway operating upstream of AGO4, such as RDR2 and DCL3, or operating downstream, such as DRD1, CMT3, DRM1, and DRM2, does not compromise resistance to this pathogen

    Mobilization of iron from intracellular stores

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    International audiencePlants rely on iron (Fe) for a wealth of biochemical reactions including photosynthesis, respiration and reactive oxygen detoxification. They use two main strategies to mobilize Fe from the soil. Strategy I relies on reduction of FeIII by a membrane ferric chelate reductase and the secretion of coumarins to mobilize soil Fe, making it available for uptake by the divalent metal transporter IRT1. Strategy II, which is used only by graminaceous species, relies on the secretion of phytosiderophores. At some stages, intracellular stores play a critical role in Fe supply. In a plant cell, Fe may be stored in vacuoles or in plastids. We have shown that AtNRAMP3 and 4 are required for Fe mobilisation from embryo vacuoles during germination (Lanquar et al., 2005, EMBO J., 24, 4041-4051). When germinated under Fe deficiency, nramp3nramp4 mutants are strongly chlorotic and their development is arrested. To identify new players in intracellular Fe homeostasis, we have looked for mutations that suppress nramp3nramp4 chlorotic phenotype. In one of the suppressors, the causal mutation affected VIT1, the gene encoding the transporter for Fe uptake into the vacuole (Mary et al., 2015, Plant Physiol. 169(1):748-59). In another one, a mutation in the gene encoding the Pleckstrin Homology protein 1 shifted the localization of AtNRAMP1 from the Trans Golgi Network to the vacuolar membrane where it could compensate for the lack of AtNRAMP3 and 4 (Agorio et al., 2017, PNAS, 114(16):E3354-E3363)

    Characterization of the Chloride Channel-Like, AtCLCg, Involved in Chloride Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    International audienceIn plant cells, anion channels and transporters are essential for key functions such as nutrition, ion homeostasis and resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. We characterized AtCLCg, a member of the chloride channel (CLC) family in Arabidopsis localized in the vacuolar membrane. When grown on NaCl or KCl, atclcg knock-out mutants showed a decrease in biomass. In the presence of NaCl, these mutants overaccumulate chloride in shoots. No difference in growth was detected in response to osmotic stress by mannitol. These results suggest a physiological function of AtCLCg in the chloride homeostasis during NaCl stress. AtCLCg shares a high degree of identity (62%) with AtCLCc, another vacuolar CLC essential for NaCl tolerance. However, the atclcc atclccg double mutant is not more sensitive to NaCl than single mutants. As the effects of both mutations are not additive, gene expression analyses were performed and revealed that: (i)AtCLCg is expressed in mesophyll cells, hydathodes and phloem while AtCLCc is expressed in stomata; and (ii)AtCLCg is repressed in the atclcc mutant background, and vice versa. Altogether these results demonstrate that both AtCLCc and AtCLCg are important for tolerance to excess chloride but not redundant, and form part of a regulatory network controlling chloride sensitivity

    Botrytis cinerea Transcriptome during the Infection Process of the Bryophyte Physcomitrium patens and Angiosperms

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    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen that causes grey mold in many plant species, including crops and model plants of angiosperms. B. cinerea also infects and colonizes the bryophyte Physcomitrium patens (previously Physcomitrella patens), which perceives the pathogen and activates defense mechanisms. However, these defenses are not sufficient to stop fungal invasion, leading finally to plant decay. To gain more insights into B. cinerea infection and virulence strategies displayed during moss colonization, we performed genome wide transcriptional profiling of B. cinerea during different infection stages. We show that, in total, 1015 B. cinerea genes were differentially expressed in moss tissues. Expression patterns of upregulated genes and gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that infection of P. patens tissues by B. cinerea depends on reactive oxygen species generation and detoxification, transporter activities, plant cell wall degradation and modification, toxin production and probable plant defense evasion by effector proteins. Moreover, a comparison with available RNAseq data during angiosperm infection, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Solanum lycopersicum and Lactuca sativa, suggests that B. cinerea has virulence and infection functions used in all hosts, while others are more specific to P. patens or angiosperms

    Table_3_The moss-specific transcription factor PpERF24 positively modulates immunity against fungal pathogens in Physcomitrium patens.XLSX

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    APETALA2/ethylene response factors (AP2/ERFs) transcription factors (TFs) have greatly expanded in land plants compared to algae. In angiosperms, AP2/ERFs play important regulatory functions in plant defenses against pathogens and abiotic stress by controlling the expression of target genes. In the moss Physcomitrium patens, a high number of members of the ERF family are induced during pathogen infection, suggesting that they are important regulators in bryophyte immunity. In the current study, we analyzed a P. patens pathogen-inducible ERF family member designated as PpERF24. Orthologs of PpERF24 were only found in other mosses, while they were absent in the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Anthoceros agrestis, the vascular plant Selaginella moellendorffii, and angiosperms. We show that PpERF24 belongs to a moss-specific clade with distinctive amino acids features in the AP2 domain that binds to the DNA. Interestingly, all P. patens members of the PpERF24 subclade are induced by fungal pathogens. The function of PpERF24 during plant immunity was assessed by an overexpression approach and transcriptomic analysis. Overexpressing lines showed increased defenses to infection by the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides evidenced by reduced cellular damage and fungal biomass compared to wild-type plants. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analysis revealed that PpERF24 positively regulates the expression levels of defense genes involved in transcriptional regulation, phenylpropanoid and jasmonate pathways, oxidative burst and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. These findings give novel insights into potential mechanism by which PpERF24 increases plant defenses against several pathogens by regulating important players in plant immunity.</p

    Table_7_The moss-specific transcription factor PpERF24 positively modulates immunity against fungal pathogens in Physcomitrium patens.xlsx

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    APETALA2/ethylene response factors (AP2/ERFs) transcription factors (TFs) have greatly expanded in land plants compared to algae. In angiosperms, AP2/ERFs play important regulatory functions in plant defenses against pathogens and abiotic stress by controlling the expression of target genes. In the moss Physcomitrium patens, a high number of members of the ERF family are induced during pathogen infection, suggesting that they are important regulators in bryophyte immunity. In the current study, we analyzed a P. patens pathogen-inducible ERF family member designated as PpERF24. Orthologs of PpERF24 were only found in other mosses, while they were absent in the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Anthoceros agrestis, the vascular plant Selaginella moellendorffii, and angiosperms. We show that PpERF24 belongs to a moss-specific clade with distinctive amino acids features in the AP2 domain that binds to the DNA. Interestingly, all P. patens members of the PpERF24 subclade are induced by fungal pathogens. The function of PpERF24 during plant immunity was assessed by an overexpression approach and transcriptomic analysis. Overexpressing lines showed increased defenses to infection by the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides evidenced by reduced cellular damage and fungal biomass compared to wild-type plants. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analysis revealed that PpERF24 positively regulates the expression levels of defense genes involved in transcriptional regulation, phenylpropanoid and jasmonate pathways, oxidative burst and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. These findings give novel insights into potential mechanism by which PpERF24 increases plant defenses against several pathogens by regulating important players in plant immunity.</p

    Table_6_The moss-specific transcription factor PpERF24 positively modulates immunity against fungal pathogens in Physcomitrium patens.XLSX

    No full text
    APETALA2/ethylene response factors (AP2/ERFs) transcription factors (TFs) have greatly expanded in land plants compared to algae. In angiosperms, AP2/ERFs play important regulatory functions in plant defenses against pathogens and abiotic stress by controlling the expression of target genes. In the moss Physcomitrium patens, a high number of members of the ERF family are induced during pathogen infection, suggesting that they are important regulators in bryophyte immunity. In the current study, we analyzed a P. patens pathogen-inducible ERF family member designated as PpERF24. Orthologs of PpERF24 were only found in other mosses, while they were absent in the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Anthoceros agrestis, the vascular plant Selaginella moellendorffii, and angiosperms. We show that PpERF24 belongs to a moss-specific clade with distinctive amino acids features in the AP2 domain that binds to the DNA. Interestingly, all P. patens members of the PpERF24 subclade are induced by fungal pathogens. The function of PpERF24 during plant immunity was assessed by an overexpression approach and transcriptomic analysis. Overexpressing lines showed increased defenses to infection by the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides evidenced by reduced cellular damage and fungal biomass compared to wild-type plants. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analysis revealed that PpERF24 positively regulates the expression levels of defense genes involved in transcriptional regulation, phenylpropanoid and jasmonate pathways, oxidative burst and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. These findings give novel insights into potential mechanism by which PpERF24 increases plant defenses against several pathogens by regulating important players in plant immunity.</p

    Table_4_The moss-specific transcription factor PpERF24 positively modulates immunity against fungal pathogens in Physcomitrium patens.XLSX

    No full text
    APETALA2/ethylene response factors (AP2/ERFs) transcription factors (TFs) have greatly expanded in land plants compared to algae. In angiosperms, AP2/ERFs play important regulatory functions in plant defenses against pathogens and abiotic stress by controlling the expression of target genes. In the moss Physcomitrium patens, a high number of members of the ERF family are induced during pathogen infection, suggesting that they are important regulators in bryophyte immunity. In the current study, we analyzed a P. patens pathogen-inducible ERF family member designated as PpERF24. Orthologs of PpERF24 were only found in other mosses, while they were absent in the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Anthoceros agrestis, the vascular plant Selaginella moellendorffii, and angiosperms. We show that PpERF24 belongs to a moss-specific clade with distinctive amino acids features in the AP2 domain that binds to the DNA. Interestingly, all P. patens members of the PpERF24 subclade are induced by fungal pathogens. The function of PpERF24 during plant immunity was assessed by an overexpression approach and transcriptomic analysis. Overexpressing lines showed increased defenses to infection by the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides evidenced by reduced cellular damage and fungal biomass compared to wild-type plants. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analysis revealed that PpERF24 positively regulates the expression levels of defense genes involved in transcriptional regulation, phenylpropanoid and jasmonate pathways, oxidative burst and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. These findings give novel insights into potential mechanism by which PpERF24 increases plant defenses against several pathogens by regulating important players in plant immunity.</p

    Mutants impaired in vacuolar metal mobilization identify chloroplasts as a target for cadmium hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    International audienceCadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to plants causing growth reduction and chlorosis. It binds thiols and competes with essential transition metals. It affects major biochemical processes such as photosynthesis and the redox balance, but the connection between cadmium effects at the biochemical level and its deleterious effect on growth has seldom been established. In this study, two Cd hypersensitive mutants, cad1-3 impaired in phytochelatin synthase (PCS1), and nramp3nramp4 impaired in release of vacuolar metal stores, have been compared. The analysis combines genetics with measurements of photosynthetic and antioxidant functions. Loss of AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 function or of PCS1 function leads to comparable Cd sensitivity. Root Cd hypersensitivities conferred by cad1-3 and nramp3nramp4 are cumulative. The two mutants contrast in their tolerance to oxidative stress. In nramp3nramp4, the photosynthetic apparatus is severely affected by Cd, whereas it is much less affected in cad1-3. In agreement with chloroplast being a prime target for Cd toxicity in nramp3nramp4, the Cd hypersensitivity of this mutant is alleviated in the dark. The Cd hypersensitivity of nramp3nramp4 mutant highlights the critical role of vacuolar metal stores to supply essential metals to plastids and maintain photosynthetic function under Cd and oxidative stresses
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