1,777 research outputs found

    PHARMACEUTICAL POTENTIAL OF LABORATORY GROWN CULTURES OF BLUE-GREEN ALGAE: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES

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    COVID-19 pandemic has taught the world researchers the urgent need for new sources and novel pharmaceuticals not only for existing diseases but also for both seasonal epidemics and future pandemics. Pharmaceutical drug discoveries for the past fifty years depended deeply on the procedure of empirical transmission of a huge number of pure bioactive compounds to provide new leads. The screening of extracts or isolating compounds is a common way to discover novel biologically active molecules. Most of the valuable Blue-Green algal metabolites are concentrated in their biomass. For existence in nature, Blue-Green algae (BGA) secrete and contain various organic substances like proteins, fatty acids, vitamins, pigments, primary and secondary metabolites, and these compounds are explored for potential biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral (including the anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19), anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, protease inhibitory activity, anti-inflammatory activity, etc. Due to their diverse application, pharmaceutical companies have shown commercial interest in the Blue-green algal group for the discovery and development of novel molecules to combat deadly diseases for the benefit of society and mankind. The current review paper highlights and discusses the diverse pharmaceutical potential of laboratory-grown cultures of BGA along with comprehensive and current knowledge on bioactive compounds discovered by researchers globally

    Percutaneous transfemoral repositioning of malpositioned central venous access device: A report of two cases

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    Placement of long term central venous access devices (CVAD) such as chemo ports and Hickman\u2032s catheters are associated with a definite risk of catheter tip malpositioning. As such, malpositioning runs a risk of venous thrombosis and related complications; it is imperative to reposition the catheter. Percutaneous transfemoral venous approach has been described as a minimally invasive and safe method for the repositioning. We present two cases in which the CVAD implanted in one subclavian vein got malpositioned in contra lateral subclavian vein. A percutaneous transfemoral venous approach utilizing 5 Fr angiographic catheter was successful in repositioning of the catheters in both cases

    Correlation formulation for optimum tilt angle for maximizing the solar radiation on solar collector in the Western Himalayan region

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    Solar tracking devices are efficacious in maximizing solar irradiation collection. However, higher price makes these systems less frequently used. As an alternative, optimum tilt angle estimation has the advantage that it does not involve tracking cost expenditure. In this study, optimum tilt angles for different months have been computed for Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India (L 31° 42′ N). Several mathematical models and statistical tools have been employed to forecast the monthly optimum tilt angles for the selected site. Different scenarios have been presented by considering five, four, three, and two annual adjustment models to increase the practical usage of the estimated optimum tilt angles. Additionally, cost-benefit analysis has also be performed on the PV panels. Based on the results, it has been concluded that model M − 11, with three annual adjustments, stipulates maximum benefits over the other models. This study can serve as fundamental guidance for setting up solar energy plants in this specified region with the highest efficiency

    Correlating multi-functional role of cold shock domain proteins with intrinsically disordered regions

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    Cold shock proteins (CSPs) are an ancient and conserved family of proteins. They are renowned for their role in response to low-temperature stress in bacteria and nucleic acid binding activities. In prokaryotes, cold and non -cold inducible CSPs are involved in various cellular and metabolic processes such as growth and development, osmotic oxidation, starvation, stress tolerance, and host cell invasion. In prokaryotes, cold shock condition re-duces cell transcription and translation efficiency. Eukaryotic cold shock domain (CSD) proteins are evolved form of prokaryotic CSPs where CSD is flanked by N-and C-terminal domains. Eukaryotic CSPs are multi-functional proteins. CSPs also act as nucleic acid chaperons by preventing the formation of secondary structures in mRNA at low temperatures. In human, CSD proteins play a crucial role in the progression of breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. A well-defined three-dimensional structure of intrinsically disordered re-gions of CSPs family members is still undetermined. In this article, intrinsic disorder regions of CSPs have been explored systematically to understand the pleiotropic role of the cold shock family of proteins

    Comparative efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid and corticosteroid injections in the management of knee osteoarthritis

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    Background: Osteoarthritis management includes a myriad of treatment modalities. This study compared the effects of corticosteroid and Hylan G-F 20 injections on knee osteoarthritis outcomes. Methods: Patients were randomized to receive either corticosteroid or Hylan G-F 20 injections. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, knee society rating system scores, and visual analog scale scores, collected at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: Baseline demographic and clinical parameters were comparable between both groups. The corticosteroid group demonstrated a significant decrease in the WOMAC score over time (p<0.001). Hylan G-F 20 group showed significant improvements in both the WOMAC scores and Visual Analog Scale scores over time (p<0.01). Gender-based sub-analysis suggested both treatments were effective in men, while in women, significant benefits were seen only with Hylan G-F 20. Conclusions: Both corticosteroid and Hylan G-F 20 demonstrated efficacy in managing knee osteoarthritis, albeit in different domains. The results suggest the need for individualized treatment plans and further research into potential gender-based variations in treatment response

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon Gene Rv0079 Encodes a Putative, ‘Dormancy Associated Translation Inhibitor (DATIN)’

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    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major human pathogen that has evolved survival mechanisms to persist in an immune-competent host under a dormant condition. The regulation of M. tuberculosis metabolism during latent infection is not clearly known. The dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) is chiefly responsible for encoding dormancy related functions of M. tuberculosis. We describe functional characterization of an important gene of DosR regulon, Rv0079, which appears to be involved in the regulation of translation through the interaction of its product with bacterial ribosomal subunits. The protein encoded by Rv0079, possibly, has an inhibitory role with respect to protein synthesis, as revealed by our experiments. We performed computational modelling and docking simulation studies involving the protein encoded by Rv0079 followed by in vitro translation and growth curve analysis experiments, involving recombinant E. coli and Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) strains that overexpressed Rv0079. Our observations concerning the interaction of the protein with the ribosomes are supportive of its role in regulation/inhibition of translation. We propose that the protein encoded by locus Rv0079 is a ‘dormancy associated translation inhibitor’ or DATIN

    Phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of organic and inorganic pollutants rich tannery wastewater from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) in Unnao district, India using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

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    The leather industry is a major source of environmental pollution in India. The wastewater generated by leather industries contains very high pollution parameters due to the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants even after the treatment at a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) and disturbs the ecological flora and fauna. The nature, characteristics and toxicity of CETP treated wastewater is yet to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study aims to characterize and evaluate the toxicity of CETP treated tannery wastewater collected from the Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh, India. In addition to measuring the physico-chemical parameters, the residual organic pollutants was identified by GC-MS analysis and phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the treated wastewater was evaluated using Vigna radiata L. and Allium cepa L. Results showed that the treated wastewater contained very high pollution parameters (TDS 3850mg/L, BOD 680mg/L, COD-1300mg/L). GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various types of residual organic pollutants including benzoic acid, 3-[4,-(T-butyl) Phenyl] furan-2-5-dione, benzeneacetamide, resorcinol, dibutyl phthalate, and benzene-1,2,4-triol. Further, toxicological studies showed the phytotoxic nature of the wastewater as it inhibited seed germination in V. radiata L. and root growth of A. cepa. Genotoxicity was evidenced in the root tip cell of A. cepa where chromosomal aberrations (stickiness, chromosome loss, C-mitosis, and vagrant chromosome) and nuclear abnormalities like micronucleated and binucleated cells were observed. Thus, results suggested that it is not safe to discharge these wastewater into the environment

    Bronchiectasis in India:results from the European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) and Respiratory Research Network of India Registry

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    BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a common but neglected chronic lung disease. Most epidemiological data are limited to cohorts from Europe and the USA, with few data from low-income and middle-income countries. We therefore aimed to describe the characteristics, severity of disease, microbiology, and treatment of patients with bronchiectasis in India. METHODS: The Indian bronchiectasis registry is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study. Adult patients ( 6518 years) with CT-confirmed bronchiectasis were enrolled from 31 centres across India. Patients with bronchiectasis due to cystic fibrosis or traction bronchiectasis associated with another respiratory disorder were excluded. Data were collected at baseline (recruitment) with follow-up visits taking place once per year. Comprehensive clinical data were collected through the European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration registry platform. Underlying aetiology of bronchiectasis, as well as treatment and risk factors for bronchiectasis were analysed in the Indian bronchiectasis registry. Comparisons of demographics were made with published European and US registries, and quality of care was benchmarked against the 2017 European Respiratory Society guidelines. FINDINGS: From June 1, 2015, to Sept 1, 2017, 2195 patients were enrolled. Marked differences were observed between India, Europe, and the USA. Patients in India were younger (median age 56 years [IQR 41-66] vs the European and US registries; p<0\ub70001]) and more likely to be men (1249 [56\ub79%] of 2195). Previous tuberculosis (780 [35\ub75%] of 2195) was the most frequent underlying cause of bronchiectasis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism in sputum culture (301 [13\ub77%]) in India. Risk factors for exacerbations included being of the male sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1\ub717, 95% CI 1\ub703-1\ub732; p=0\ub7015), P aeruginosa infection (1\ub729, 1\ub710-1\ub750; p=0\ub7001), a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (1\ub720, 1\ub707-1\ub734; p=0\ub7002), modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea score (1\ub732, 1\ub725-1\ub739; p<0\ub70001), daily sputum production (1\ub716, 1\ub703-1\ub730; p=0\ub7013), and radiological severity of disease (1\ub703, 1\ub701-1\ub704; p<0\ub70001). Low adherence to guideline-recommended care was observed; only 388 patients were tested for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and 82 patients had been tested for immunoglobulins. INTERPRETATION: Patients with bronchiectasis in India have more severe disease and have distinct characteristics from those reported in other countries. This study provides a benchmark to improve quality of care for patients with bronchiectasis in India. FUNDING: EU/European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations Innovative Medicines Initiative inhaled Antibiotics in Bronchiectasis and Cystic Fibrosis Consortium, European Respiratory Society, and the British Lung Foundation
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