35 research outputs found

    A Multi-disciplinary Commentary on Preclinical Research to investigate Vascular Contributions to Dementia

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    Although dementia research has been dominated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), most dementia in older people is now recognised to be due to mixed pathologies, usually combining vascular and AD brain pathology. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), which encompasses vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. Models of VCI have been delayed by limited understanding of the underlying aetiology and pathogenesis. This review by a multidisciplinary, diverse (in terms of sex, geography and career stage), cross-institute team provides a perspective on limitations to current VCI models and recommendations for improving translation and reproducibility. We discuss reproducibility, clinical features of VCI and corresponding assessments in models, human pathology, bioinformatics approaches, and data sharing. We offer recommendations for future research, particularly focusing on small vessel disease as a main underpinning disorder

    A Multi-disciplinary Commentary on Preclinical Research to investigate Vascular Contributions to Dementia

    Get PDF
    Although dementia research has been dominated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), most dementia in older people is now recognised to be due to mixed pathologies, usually combining vascular and AD brain pathology. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), which encompasses vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. Models of VCI have been delayed by limited understanding of the underlying aetiology and pathogenesis. This review by a multidisciplinary, diverse (in terms of sex, geography and career stage), cross-institute team provides a perspective on limitations to current VCI models and recommendations for improving translation and reproducibility. We discuss reproducibility, clinical features of VCI and corresponding assessments in models, human pathology, bioinformatics approaches, and data sharing. We offer recommendations for future research, particularly focusing on small vessel disease as a main underpinning disorder.</p

    A multi-disciplinary commentary on preclinical research to investigate vascular contributions to dementia

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    Although dementia research has been dominated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), most dementia in older people is now recognised to be due to mixed pathologies, usually combining vascular and AD brain pathology. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), which encompasses vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. Models of VCI have been delayed by limited understanding of the underlying aetiology and pathogenesis. This review by a multidisciplinary, diverse (in terms of sex, geography and career stage), cross-institute team provides a perspective on limitations to current VCI models and recommendations for improving translation and reproducibility. We discuss reproducibility, clinical features of VCI and corresponding assessments in models, human pathology, bioinformatics approaches, and data sharing. We offer recommendations for future research, particularly focusing on small vessel disease as a main underpinning disorder

    Non-canonical Keap1-independent activation of Nrf2 in astrocytes by mild oxidative stress

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    The transcription factor Nrf2 is a stress-responsive master regulator of antioxidant, detoxification and proteostasis genes. In astrocytes, Nrf2-dependent gene expression drives cell-autonomous cytoprotection and also non-cell-autonomous protection of nearby neurons, and can ameliorate pathology in several acute and chronic neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress. However, the value of astrocytic Nrf2 as a therapeutic target depends in part on whether Nrf2 activation by disease-associated oxidative stress occludes the effect of any Nrf2-activating drug. Nrf2 activation classically involves the inhibition of interactions between Nrf2's Neh2 domain and Keap1, which directs Nrf2 degradation. Keap1 inhibition is mediated by the modification of cysteine residues on Keap1, and can be triggered by electrophilic small molecules such as tBHQ. Here we show that astrocytic Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress involves Keap1-independent non-canonical signaling. Keap1 deficiency elevates basal Nrf2 target gene expression in astrocytes and occludes the effects of tBHQ, oxidative stress still induced strong Nrf2-dependent gene expression in Keap1-deficient astrocytes. Moreover, while tBHQ prevented protein degradation mediated via Nrf2's Neh2 domain, oxidative stress did not, consistent with a Keap1-independent mechanism. Moreover the effects of oxidative stress and tBHQ on Nrf2 target gene expression are additive, not occlusive. Mechanistically, oxidative stress enhances the transactivation potential of Nrf2's Neh5 domain in a manner dependent on its Cys-191 residue. Thus, astrocytic Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress involves Keap1-independent non-canonical signaling, meaning that further Nrf2 activation by Keap1-inhibiting drugs may be a viable therapeutic strategy

    The BACE1 product sAPPβ induces ER stress and inflammation and impairs insulin signaling

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    Objective β-secretase/β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a key enzyme involved in Alzheimer's disease that has recently been implicated in insulin-independent glucose uptake in myotubes. However, it is presently unknown whether BACE1 and the product of its activity, soluble APPβ (sAPPβ), contribute to lipid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. Materials/Methods Studies were conducted in mouse C2C12 myotubes, skeletal muscle from Bace1−/−mice and mice treated with sAPPβ and adipose tissue and plasma from obese and type 2 diabetic patients. Results We show that BACE1 inhibition or knockdown attenuates palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance and prevents the reduction in Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and fatty acid oxidation caused by palmitate in myotubes. The effects of palmitate on ER stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, PGC-1α down-regulation, and fatty acid oxidation were mimicked by soluble APPβ in vitro. BACE1 expression was increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese and type 2 diabetic patients and this was accompanied by a decrease in PGC-1α mRNA levels and by an increase in sAPPβ plasma levels of obese type 2 diabetic patients compared to obese non-diabetic subjects. Acute sAPPβ administration to mice reduced PGC-1α levels and increased inflammation in skeletal muscle and decreased insulin sensitivity. Conclusions Collectively, these findings indicate that the BACE1 product sAPPβ is a key determinant in ER stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and gluconeogenesis in liver

    Calcium Channel CaV2.3 Subunits Regulate Hepatic Glucose Production by Modulating Leptin-Induced Excitation of Arcuate Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons

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    Leptin acts on hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons to regulate glucose homeostasis, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that leptin-induced depolarization of POMC neurons is associated with the augmentation of a voltage-gated calcium (CaV) conductance with the properties of the “R-type” channel. Knockdown of the pore-forming subunit of the R-type (CaV2.3 or Cacna1e) conductance in hypothalamic POMC neurons prevented sustained leptin-induced depolarization. In vivo POMC-specific Cacna1e knockdown increased hepatic glucose production and insulin resistance, while body weight, feeding, or leptin-induced suppression of food intake were not changed. These findings link Cacna1e function to leptin-mediated POMC neuron excitability and glucose homeostasis and may provide a target for the treatment of diabetes
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