15,032 research outputs found

    Physical state representations and gauge fixing in string theory

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    We re-examine physical state representations in the covariant quantization of bosonic string. We especially consider one parameter family of gauge fixing conditions for the residual gauge symmetry due to null states (or BRST exact states), and obtain explicit representations of observable Hilbert space which include those of the DDF states. This analysis is aimed at giving a necessary ingredient for the complete gauge fixing procedures of covariant string field theory such as temporal or light-cone gauge.Comment: 16 page

    Secondary Photons from High-energy Protons Accelerated in Hypernovae

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    Recent observations show that hypernovae may deposit some fraction of their kinetic energy in mildly relativistic ejecta. In the dissipation process of such ejecta in a stellar wind, cosmic ray protons can be accelerated up to 1019\sim 10^{19} eV. We discuss the TeV to MeV gamma-ray and the X-ray photon signatures of cosmic rays accelerated in hypernovae. Secondary X-ray photons, emitted by electron-positron pairs produced via cascade processes due to high-energy protons, are the most promising targets for X-ray telescopes. Synchrotron photons emitted by protons can appear in the GeV band, requiring nearby (<40<40 Mpc) hypernovae for detection with GLAST. In addition, air Cherenkov telescopes may be able to detect regenerated TeV photons emitted by electron-positron pairs generated by CMB attenuation of π0\pi^0 decay photons.Comment: Accepted by ApJ

    Josephson Spin Current in Triplet Superconductor Junctions

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    This paper theoretically discusses the spin current in spin-triplet superconductor / insulator / spin-triplet superconductor junctions. At low temperatures, a midgap Andreev resonant state anomalously enhances not only the charge current but also the spin current. The coupling between the Cooper pairs and the electromagnetic fields leads to the Frounhofer pattern in the direct current spin flow in magnetic fields and the alternative spin current under applied bias-voltages.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure