33 research outputs found

    Intellectual Feature Ranking Model with Correlated Feature Set based Malware Detection in Cloud environment using Machine Learning

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    Malware detection for cloud systems has been studied extensively, and many different approaches have been developed and implemented in an effort to stay ahead of this ever-evolving threat. Malware refers to any programme or defect that is designed to duplicate itself or cause damage to the system's hardware or software. These attacks are designed specifically to cause harm to operational systems, but they are invisible to the human eye. One of the most exciting developments in data storage and service delivery today is cloud computing. There are significant benefits to be gained over more conventional protection methods by making use of this fast evolving technology to protect computer-based systems from cyber-related threats. Assets to be secured may reside in any networked computing environment, including but not limited to Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), critical systems, fixed and portable computers, mobile devices, and the Internet of Things (IoT). Malicious software or malware refers to any programme that intentionally compromises a computer system in order to compromise its security, privacy, or availability. A cloud-based intelligent behavior analysis model for malware detection system using feature set is proposed to identify the ever-increasing malware attacks. The suggested system begins by collecting malware samples from several virtual machines, from which unique characteristics can be extracted easily. Then, the malicious and safe samples are separated using the features provided to the learning-based and rule-based detection agents. To generate a relevant feature set for accurate malware detection, this research proposes an Intellectual Feature Ranking Model with Correlated Feature Set (IFR-CFS) model using enhanced logistic regression model for accurate detection of malware in the cloud environment. The proposed model when compared to the traditional feature selection model, performs better in generation of feature set for accurate detection of malware

    Evaluating the effect of measles and rubella mass vaccination campaigns on seroprevalence in India: a before-and-after cross-sectional household serosurvey in four districts, 2018-2020

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    BACKGROUND: India did phased measles-rubella supplementary immunisation activities (MR-SIAs; ie, mass-immunisation campaigns) targeting children aged 9 months to less than 15 years. We estimated measles-rubella seroprevalence before and after the MR-SIAs to quantify the effect on population immunity and identify remaining immunity gaps. METHODS: Between March 9, 2018 and March 19, 2020 we did community-based, cross-sectional serosurveys in four districts in India before and after MR-SIAs. 30 villages or wards were selected within each district, and one census enumeration block from each was selected as the survey cluster. Households were enumerated and 13 children in the younger age group (9 months to <5 years) and 13 children in the older ager group (5 to <15 years) were randomly selected by use of computer-generated random numbers. Serum samples were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses by enzyme immunoassay. FINDINGS: Specimens were collected from 2570 children before the MR-SIA and from 2619 children afterwards. The weighted MR-SIA coverage ranged from 73路7% to 90路5% in younger children and from 73路6% to 93路6% in older children. Before the MR-SIA, district-level measles seroprevalence was between 80路7% and 88路5% among younger children in all districts, and between 63路4% and 84路5% among older children. After the MR-SIA, measles seroprevalence among younger children increased to more than 90% (range 91路5 to 96路0) in all districts except Kanpur Nagar, in which it remained unchanged 80路4%. Among older children, measles seroprevalence increased to more than 90路0% (range 93路7% to 96路5%) in all districts except Hoshiarpur (88路7%). A significant increase in rubella seroprevalence was observed in all districts in both age groups, with the largest effect in Dibrugarh, where rubella seroprevalence increased from 10路6% to 96路5% among younger children. INTERPRETATION: Measles-rubella seroprevalence increased substantially after the MR-SIAs but the serosurvey also identified remaining gaps in population immunity. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Indian Council of Medical Research

    Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Heart Disease in Children

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    The last five decades have witnessed an inordinate number of advances in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart defects (CHDs), as reviewed elsewhere [...

    Co-Inhibition of Androgen Receptor and PARP as a Novel Treatment Paradigm in Prostate Cancer鈥擶here Are We Now?

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    Metastatic prostate cancer remains lethal with a 5-year survival rate of about 30%, indicating the need for better treatment options. Novel antiandrogens (NAA)鈥攅nzalutamide and abiraterone鈥攈ave been the mainstay of treatment for advanced disease since 2011. In patients who progress on the first NAA, responses to the second NAA are infrequent (25鈥30%) and short-lasting (median PFS ~3 months). With the growing adoption of NAA therapy in pre-metastatic castration-resistant settings, finding better treatment options for first-line mCRPC has become an urgent clinical need. The regulatory approval of two PARP inhibitors in 2020鈥攔ucaparib and olaparib鈥攈as provided the first targeted therapy option for patients harboring defects in selected DNA damage response and repair (DDR) pathway genes. However, a growing body of preclinical and clinical data shows that co-inhibition of AR and PARP induces synthetic lethality and could be a promising therapy for patients without any DDR alterations. In this review article, we will investigate the limitations of NAA monotherapy, the mechanistic rationale for synthetic lethality induced by co-inhibition of AR and PARP, the clinical data that have led to the global development of a number of these AR and PARP combination therapies, and how this may impact patient care in the next 2鈥10 years

    Co-Inhibition of Androgen Receptor and PARP as a Novel Treatment Paradigm in Prostate Cancer&mdash;Where Are We Now?

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    Metastatic prostate cancer remains lethal with a 5-year survival rate of about 30%, indicating the need for better treatment options. Novel antiandrogens (NAA)&mdash;enzalutamide and abiraterone&mdash;have been the mainstay of treatment for advanced disease since 2011. In patients who progress on the first NAA, responses to the second NAA are infrequent (25&ndash;30%) and short-lasting (median PFS ~3 months). With the growing adoption of NAA therapy in pre-metastatic castration-resistant settings, finding better treatment options for first-line mCRPC has become an urgent clinical need. The regulatory approval of two PARP inhibitors in 2020&mdash;rucaparib and olaparib&mdash;has provided the first targeted therapy option for patients harboring defects in selected DNA damage response and repair (DDR) pathway genes. However, a growing body of preclinical and clinical data shows that co-inhibition of AR and PARP induces synthetic lethality and could be a promising therapy for patients without any DDR alterations. In this review article, we will investigate the limitations of NAA monotherapy, the mechanistic rationale for synthetic lethality induced by co-inhibition of AR and PARP, the clinical data that have led to the global development of a number of these AR and PARP combination therapies, and how this may impact patient care in the next 2&ndash;10 years

    Efficiency of cathodic prevention to control corrosion in seawater mixed concrete

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    Anti-S100A4 Antibody Therapy Is Efficient in Treating Aggressive Prostate Cancer and Reversing Immunosuppression:Serum and Biopsy <i>S100A4 </i>as a Clinical Predictor

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    S100A4 oncoprotein plays a critical role during prostate cancer (CaP) progression and induces immunosuppression in host-tissues. We hypothesized that S100A4-regulated oncogenic activity in immunosuppressed prostate tumors promotes growth of neoplastic cells which are likely to become aggressive. In the current study, we investigated if biopsy-S100A4 gene alteration independently predicts the outcome of disease in patients and circulatory-S100A4 is druggable target for treating immunosuppressive-CaP. Aided by DECIPHER-genomic test, we show biopsy-S100A4 overexpression as predictive of (i) poor ADT-response and (ii) high-risk of mortality in 228 radical prostatectomy-treated patients. Furthermore, analysis of tumor genome data of >1000 CaP patients (PRAD/SU2C/FHCRC studies) validated the association of S100A4-alteration to poor-survival and metastasis. We show that increased serum-S100A4 levels are associated to the CaP progression in patients. The prerequisite for metastasis is the escape of tumor cells via vascular system. We show that extracellular-S100A4 protein as a growth factor induces vascular transmigration of CaP cells and bone-mineralization thus forms an ideal target for therapies for treating CaP. By employing Surface-Plasmon-resonance and ITC, we show that mab6B12 antibody interacts with and neutralizes S100A4 protein. When tested for therapeutic efficacy, the mab6B12 antibody-therapy reduced (i) osteoblastic mineralization of bone-derived MSC`s, (ii) S100A4-targets (NF魏B/MMP9/VEGF) in CaP-cells, and (iii) TRAMPC2-cell tumorigenicity in an immunosufficient mouse model. The immuno-profile analysis showed that mAb6B12-therapy (i) shifted Th1/Th2 balance (increased-Stat4(+)/T-bet(+), & decreased-GATA2(+)/CD68(+)/CD45(+)/CD206(+) cells), (ii) modulated cytokine-levels in CD4(+ve) T-cells, and (iii) decreased levels of Interleukin-5/6/12/13, sTNFR1 and serum-RANTES. We suggest that S100A4-antibody therapy has clinical applicability in treating immunosuppressive-CaP in patients

    NK-Cell-Mediated Targeting of Various Solid Tumors Using a B7-H3 Tri-Specific Killer Engager In Vitro and In Vivo

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    We improved the bispecific antibody platform that primarily engages natural killer (NK) cells to kill cancer cells through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by adding IL-15 as a crosslinker that expands and self-sustains the effector NK cell population. The overall goal was to target B7-H3, an established marker predominantly expressed on cancer cells and minimally expressed on normal cells, and prove that it could target cancer cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. The tri-specific killer engager (TriKETM) was assembled by DNA shuffling and ligation using DNA encoding a camelid anti-CD16 antibody fragment, a wild-type IL-15 moiety, and an anti-B7-H3 scFv (clone 376.96). The expressed and purified cam1615B7H3 protein was tested for in vitro NK cell activity against a variety of tumors and in vivo against a tagged human MA-148 ovarian cancer cell line grafted in NSG mice. cam1615B7H3 showed specific NK cell expansion, high killing activity across a range of B7-H3+ carcinomas, and the ability to mediate growth inhibition of aggressive ovarian cancer in vivo. cam1615B7H3 TriKE improves NK cell function, expansion, targeted cytotoxicity against various types of B7-H3-positive human cancer cell lines, and delivers an anti-cancer effect in vivo in a solid tumor setting
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