209 research outputs found

    Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration

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    Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration

    Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment after Intravitreal Injections of Anti-VEGF for Retinal Diseases: Data from the Fight Retinal Blindness! Registry

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    PURPOSE To report the estimated incidence, probability, risk factors, and 1-year outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in eyes receiving intravitreal injections (IVTs) of VEGF inhibitors for various retinal conditions in routine clinical practice. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of data from a prospectively designed observational outcomes registry: the Fight Retinal Blindness! PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Eyes of patients starting IVTs of VEGF inhibitors (ranibizumab, aflibercept, or bevacizumab) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, or retinal vein occlusion from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2020. All eyes that developed RRD within 90 days of IVTs were defined as cases with RRD and were matched with control eyes. METHODS Estimated incidence, probability, and hazard ratios (HRs) of RRD were measured using Poisson regression, Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and Cox proportional hazards models. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves were used to compare visual acuity (VA) between cases and matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Estimated incidence of RRD. RESULTS We identified 16 915 eyes of 13 792 patients who collectively received 265 781 IVTs over 14 years. Thirty-six eyes were reported to develop RRD over the study period. The estimated incidence (95% confidence interval [CI]) per year per 1000 patients and per 10 000 injections was 0.77 (0.54-1.07) and 1.36 (0.95-1.89), respectively. The probability of RRD did not significantly increase at each successive injection (P = 0.95) with the time of follow-up. Older patients (HR [95% CI] = 1.81 [1.21-3.62] for every decade increase in age, P < 0.01) were at a higher risk of RRD, whereas patients with good presenting VA (HR [95% CI] = 0.85 [0.70-0.98] for every 10-letter increase in VA, P = 0.02) were at a lower risk. Neither the type of retinal disease (P = 0.52) nor the VEGF inhibitor (P = 0.09) was significantly associated with RRD risk. Cases with RRD lost 3 lines of vision on average compared with the prior RRD VA and had significantly fewer injections than matched controls over the year after the RRD. CONCLUSIONS Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a rare complication of VEGF inhibitor IVT in routine clinical practice with poor visual outcomes at 1 year

    Retinal Vessel Phenotype In Patients With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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    International audiencePURPOSE: To characterize the phenotype of retinal vessels using central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), tortuosity and fractal dimension (FD) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subjects. METHODS: This prospective case-control multicentre study included 61 POAG subjects and 61 controls matched for age, systemic hypertension and body mass index. Fundus images of the right eye were acquired using a non-mydriatic camera. Central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), CRVE, arteriole-to-venule ratio, FD and tortuosity of the vascular network were measured using VAMPIRE software (Vessel Assessment and Measurement Platform for Images of the Retina). Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients underwent 24.2 sita-standard visual field and peri-papillary optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations. Data were expressed as median and interquartile range (75-25th percentiles). RESULTS: The control group was comparable to the POAG group for sex ratio, refraction and intraocular pressure. The mean CRAE and the mean CRVE were significantly lower in the POAG group than in the control group [150.5 (137.9; 157.1) mum versus 161.3 (154.0; 168.4) mum and 204.8 (190.1; 218.1) mum versus 233.5 (222.3; 246.9) mum, respectively; p < 0.001] and for fractal parameters as well. No significant difference was found for tortuosity between the two groups. There was a significant correlation between CRAE and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness (r = 0.27; p = 0.03). VAMPIRE parameters were not correlated with visual field indices. CONCLUSION: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) was associated with a narrowing of arterial and venous retinal vessels, a higher arteriole-to-venule ratio and lower values of FD. The relationship between CRAE and RNFL thickness needs further investigation

    Studying the Hurdles of Insulin Prescription (SHIP©): development, scoring and initial validation of a new self-administered questionnaire

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Although insulin therapy is well-accepted by symptomatic diabetic patients, it is still often delayed in less severe patients, in whom injectable insulin remains under-used. A better understanding of patients' perception of insulin would eventually help physicians to adopt the most appropriate dialogue when having to motivate patients to initiate or to intensify insulin injection.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The 'Studying the Hurdles of Insulin Prescription' (SHIP) questionnaire was developed based on a list of concepts derived from three diabetic patients' focus groups, and was included into two cross-sectional studies with similar design: SHIP Oral study and SHIP Premix study. Diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA; n = 1,494) and patients already treated with insulin (n = 1,150) completed the questionnaire at baseline, 6- and 12 months. Psychometric properties were assessed: 1) structure analysis by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation, 2) internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha), and 3) concurrent validity (Spearman correlation coefficients with the Fear of Self-Injecting (FSI) score of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire. Reluctance/motivation towards insulin was assessed. Scores' ability to predict patients' insulin injection reluctance/motivation and initiation/intensification was evaluated with the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve (AUC).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>PCA analysis confirmed the structure of the 14 items grouped into 3 dimensions: 'acceptance and motivation', 'fear and constraints', and 'restraints and barriers' towards insulin injection. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70); concurrent validity was good. The three scores were significantly predictive of patients' reluctance/motivation towards insulin injection initiation, as they were of patients' actual switch, except for the 'restraints and barriers' dimension. 'Acceptance and motivation' and 'fears and constraints' dimensions were also significantly predictive of patients' reluctance/motivation towards insulin intensification. By the end of the 12-month study, 179 of the initially OHA-treated patients had started insulin injections; 186 of the patients already treated with insulin had increased their injections.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The SHIP questionnaire provides reliable and valid assessment of diabetic patients' attitude towards insulin and injections. The predictive power of scores for patients' reluctance/motivation and actual treatment decisions demonstrates encouraging potential for further application in clinical practice.</p

    Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of submacular haemorrhage with loss of vision in neovascular age-related macular degeneration in daily clinical practice: data from the FRB! registry

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    PURPOSE The main purpose of the study was to report the estimated incidence, cumulative rate, risk factors and outcomes of submacular haemorrhage (SMH) with loss of vision in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) receiving intravitreal injections (IVT) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor in routine clinical practice. METHODS Retrospective analysis of treatment-naïve eyes receiving IVTs of VEGF inhibitors (ranibizumab, aflibercept or bevacizumab) for nAMD from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2020 that were tracked the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry. Estimated incidence, cumulative rate and hazard ratios (HR) of SMH with loss of vision during treatment were measured using the Poisson regression, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS We identified 7642 eyes (6425 patients) with a total of 135 095 IVT over a 10-year period. One hundred five eyes developed SMH with loss of vision with a rate of 1 per 1283 injections (0.08% 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [0.06; 0.09]). The estimated incidence [95% CI] was 4.6 [3.8; 5.7] SMH with loss of vision per year per 1000 treated patients during the study. The cumulative [95% CI] rate of SMH per patient did not increase significantly with each successive injection (p = 0.947). SMH cases had a mean VA drop of around 6 lines at diagnosis, which then improved moderately to a 4-line loss at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS Submacular haemorrhage (SMH) with loss of vision is an uncommon complication that can occur at any time in eyes treated for nAMD in routine clinical practice, with only limited recovery of vision 1 year later

    Intraocular Pressure Changes After Intravitreal Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant: Results from Four European Countries

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    none14siIntroduction: The 0.19 mg fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) intravitreal implant delivers a continuous intravitreal corticosteroid dose for the treatment of refractory diabetic macular oedema (DMO). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an FAc intravitreal implant on intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: We retrospectively collected anonymised data on the patients’ characteristics, DMO treatment, and IOP and IOP-lowering treatments before and after the FAc intravitreal implant between September 2013 and March 2020 in several European centres. Results: A total of 221 eyes from 179 patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 13.4 (± 12.5, range 2.4–33.5) months. Overall, 194 eyes (88.2%) had received an intravitreal dexamethasone injection before the FAc intravitreal implant. For 25 eyes (11.3%) there was a history of glaucoma, and 52 eyes (23.5%) had previous IOP-lowering treatment. Mean IOP before injection was 14.7 (3.4) mmHg and increased to 16.9 (3.7) mmHg 12 months after injection (P < 0.0001). During follow-up, 55 eyes (24.9%) required the addition or initiation of topical IOP-lowering medication, only one patient (0.5%) had laser trabeculoplasty and one patient (0.5%) a minimally invasive glaucoma surgery, and no patient required incisional IOP-lowering surgery. Conclusion: The FAc intravitreal implant led to substantial IOP elevation. This elevation was monitored most of the time with addition or initiation of topical IOP-lowering medication.openLebrize S.; Arnould L.; Bourredjem A.; Busch C.; Rehak M.; Massin P.; Barbosa-Breda J.; Lupidi M.; Mariotti C.; Hamza M.; Grise-Dulac A.; Gabrielle P.-H.; Baillif S.; Creuzot-Garcher C.Lebrize, S.; Arnould, L.; Bourredjem, A.; Busch, C.; Rehak, M.; Massin, P.; Barbosa-Breda, J.; Lupidi, M.; Mariotti, C.; Hamza, M.; Grise-Dulac, A.; Gabrielle, P. -H.; Baillif, S.; Creuzot-Garcher, C

    Ophthalmol Ther

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    The healthcare burden of cardiovascular diseases remains a major issue worldwide. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and improving identification of people with a higher risk profile of systemic vascular disease through noninvasive examinations is crucial. In ophthalmology, retinal vascular network imaging is simple and noninvasive and can provide in vivo information of the microstructure and vascular health. For more than 10 years, different research teams have been working on developing software to enable automatic analysis of the retinal vascular network from different imaging techniques (retinal fundus photographs, OCT angiography, adaptive optics, etc.) and to provide a description of the geometric characteristics of its arterial and venous components. Thus, the structure of retinal vessels could be considered a witness of the systemic vascular status. A new approach called "oculomics" using retinal image datasets and artificial intelligence algorithms recently increased the interest in retinal microvascular biomarkers. Despite the large volume of associated research, the role of retinal biomarkers in the screening, monitoring, or prediction of systemic vascular disease remains uncertain. A PubMed search was conducted until August 2022 and yielded relevant peer-reviewed articles based on a set of inclusion criteria. This literature review is intended to summarize the state of the art in oculomics and cardiovascular disease research

    Association of Systemic Medication Use with Glaucoma and Intraocular Pressure:The European Eye Epidemiology Consortium

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    Purpose: To investigate the association of commonly used systemic medications with glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) in the European population. Design: Meta-analysis of 11 population-based cohort studies of the European Eye Epidemiology Consortium. Participants: The glaucoma analyses included 143 240 participants and the IOP analyses included 47 177 participants. Methods: We examined associations of 4 categories of systemic medications—antihypertensive medications (ÎČ-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], α-agonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers), lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants, and antidiabetic medications—with glaucoma prevalence and IOP. Glaucoma ascertainment and IOP measurement method were according to individual study protocols. Results of multivariable regression analyses of each study were pooled using random effects meta-analyses. Associations with antidiabetic medications were examined in participants with diabetes only. Main Outcome Measures: Glaucoma prevalence and IOP. Results: In the meta-analyses of our maximally adjusted multivariable models, use of CCBs was associated with a higher prevalence of glaucoma (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.39). This association was stronger for monotherapy of CCBs with direct cardiac effects (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.23 to 3.12). No other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants, or antidiabetic medications were associated with glaucoma. Use of systemic ÎČ-blockers was associated with a lower IOP (ÎČ coefficient, −0.33 mmHg; 95% CI, −0.57 to −0.08 mmHg). Monotherapy of both selective systemic ÎČ-blockers (ÎČ coefficient, −0.45 mmHg; 95% CI −0.74 to −0.16 mmHg) and nonselective systemic ÎČ-blockers (ÎČ coefficient, −0.54 mmHg; 95% CI, −0.94 to −0.15 mmHg) was associated with lower IOP. A suggestive association was found between use of high-ceiling diuretics and lower IOP (ÎČ coefficient, −0.30 mmHg; 95% CI, −0.47 to −0.14 mmHg) but not when used as monotherapy. No other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants, or antidiabetic medications were associated with IOP. Conclusions: We identified a potentially harmful association between use of CCBs and glaucoma prevalence. Additionally, we observed and quantified the association of lower IOP with systemic ÎČ-blocker use. Both findings potentially are important, given that patients with glaucoma frequently use systemic antihypertensive medications. Determining causality of the CCB association should be a research priority. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found in the Footnotes and Disclosures at the end of this article.</p

    Association of systemic medication use with glaucoma and intraocular pressure: the E3 Consortium

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    PURPOSE: To investigate the association of commonly used systemic medications with glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) in the European population. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of eleven population-based cohort studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 143240 participants were included in the glaucoma analyses and 47177 participants in the IOP analyses. METHODS: We examined associations of four categories of systemic medications (antihypertensive medications: beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], alpha-agonists, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers; lipid-lowering medications; antidepressants; antidiabetic medications) with glaucoma prevalence and IOP. Glaucoma ascertainment and IOP measurement method were according to individual study protocols. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out in each study and results were pooled using random effects meta-analyses. Associations with antidiabetic medications were examined in diabetic participants only. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glaucoma prevalence and IOP. RESULTS: In the meta-analyses of our maximally-adjusted multivariable models, use of CCBs was associated with a higher prevalence of glaucoma (odds ratio [OR] with corresponding 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.23 [1.08 to 1.39]). This association was stronger for monotherapy of CCBs with direct cardiac effects (OR [95% CI]: 1.96 [1.23 to 3.12]). The use of other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants or antidiabetic medications were not clearly associated with glaucoma. Use of systemic beta-blockers was associated with a lower IOP (Beta [95% CI]: -0.33 [-0.57 to -0.08] mmHg). Monotherapy of both selective (Beta [95% CI]: -0.45 [-0.74 to -0.16] mmHg) and non-selective (Beta [95% CI]: -0.54 [-0.94 to -0.15] mmHg) systemic beta-blockers was associated with lower IOP. There was a suggestive association between use of high-ceiling diuretics and lower IOP (Beta [95% CI]: -0.30 [-0.47; -0.14] mmHg), but not when used as monotherapy. Use of other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants, or antidiabetic medications were not associated with IOP. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a potentially harmful association between use of CCBs and glaucoma prevalence. Additionally, we observed and quantified the association of lower IOP with systemic beta-blocker use. Both findings are potentially important given that glaucoma patients frequently use systemic antihypertensive medications. Determining whether the CCB association is causal should be a research priority

    Sex differences in oncogenic mutational processes

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    Sex differences have been observed in multiple facets of cancer epidemiology, treatment and biology, and in most cancers outside the sex organs. Efforts to link these clinical differences to specific molecular features have focused on somatic mutations within the coding regions of the genome. Here we report a pan-cancer analysis of sex differences in whole genomes of 1983 tumours of 28 subtypes as part of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium. We both confirm the results of exome studies, and also uncover previously undescribed sex differences. These include sex-biases in coding and non-coding cancer drivers, mutation prevalence and strikingly, in mutational signatures related to underlying mutational processes. These results underline the pervasiveness of molecular sex differences and strengthen the call for increased consideration of sex in molecular cancer research
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