1,023 research outputs found

    Telegram from the Armenian National Committee of New York to Geraldine Ferraro

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    Telegram from the New York chapter of the Armenian National Committee to Geraldine Ferraro. Includes data entry sheet.https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/vice_presidential_campaign_correspondence_1984_new_york/1256/thumbnail.jp

    Loss and psychosocial factors as determinants of quality of life in a cohort of earthquake survivors.

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    BACKGROUND: Despite the existing evidence of a long lasting effect of disaster related experiences on physical and psychological health, few studies have evaluated long-term quality of life (QOL) outcomes of disaster survivors and the factors associated with such outcomes. METHODS: 23 years after the 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia, the associations of demographic characteristics, trauma exposure and psychosocial variables on QOL were explored among a cohort of 725 exposed individuals. The EQ-5D-5 L instrument was applied to measure QOL of participants. Multivariate linear and ordinal logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the determinants of QOL and its underlying five domains (mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression). RESULTS: Older age, current depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety symptoms were negatively associated with QOL. Additionally, those with severe losses (who did not receive any financial/material aid) had significantly poorer QOL outcomes, with higher odds of mobility difficulties (OR = 1.86, p < 0.05), self-care difficulties (OR = 2.85, p < 0.05), and mood problems (OR = 2.69, p < 0.05). However, those with severe earthquake related losses who received financial/material aid reported less self-care difficulties (OR = 0.21, p < 0.05) usual activity difficulties (OR = 0.40, p < 0.05), and mood problems (OR = 0.44, p < 0.05). Finally, each unit increase in current social support score was found to be significantly associated with a better QOL outcome and better self-reported outcomes across all underlying domains of QOL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that earthquake related loss and concurrent psychopathology symptoms can have adverse impact on the QOL of survivors. They also indicate that well-targeted post-disaster financial/material aid and social support should be considered as means for improving the long-term QOL outcomes of disaster survivors

    Short and long term determinants of incident multimorbidity in a cohort of 1988 earthquake survivors in Armenia

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    BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity, presence of two or more health conditions, is a widespread phenomenon affecting populations’ health all over the world. It becomes a serious public health concern due to its negative consequences on quality of life, mortality, and cost of healthcare services utilization. Studies exploring determinants of multimorbidity are limited, particularly those looking at vulnerable populations prospectively over time. This study aimed at identifying short and long term socioeconomic, psychosocial, and health behavioral determinants of incident multimorbidity among a cohort of the 1988 Armenian earthquake survivors. METHODS: The study included a representative subsample of 725 from a larger initial cohort of the earthquake survivors. Data on this subsample were collected via four phases of this cohort study during the period 1990–2012. The final logistic regression analysis eliminated all those cases with baseline multimorbidity to investigate short and long term determinants of incident multimorbidity; this subsample included 600 participants. RESULTS: More than 75% of the studied sample had multimorbidity. Perceived low affordability of healthcare services, poor living standards during the post-earthquake decade, and lower education were independent predictors of incident multimorbidity developed during the period 1990–2012. Stressful life events and poor social support were among psychosocial determinants of incident multimorbidity. Participants’ baseline BMI reported in 1990 was independently associated with incident multimorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the identified determinants of incident multimorbidity in our study population were markers of social inequities, indicating that inequities pose a serious threat to both individual and public health-related outcomes. Strategies targeting to decrease such inequities along with promotion of healthy lifestyle and strengthening of social networks may considerably reduce multimorbidity among population groups with similar socioeconomic and cultural profiles

    Faculty String Quartet

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    Kemp Recital Hall Wednesday Evening December 1, 1999 8:30 P.M

    Diabetes in childhood cancer survivors: emerging concepts in pathophysiology and future directions

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    With advancements in cancer treatment and supportive care, there is a growing population of childhood cancer survivors who experience a substantial burden of comorbidities related to having received cancer treatment at a young age. Despite an overall reduction in the incidence of most chronic health conditions in childhood cancer survivors over the past several decades, the cumulative incidence of certain late effects, in particular diabetes mellitus (DM), has increased. The implications are significant, because DM is a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of premature death in childhood cancer survivors. The underlying pathophysiology of DM in cancer survivors is multifactorial. DM develops at younger ages in survivors compared to controls, which may reflect an “accelerated aging” phenotype in these individuals. The treatment-related exposures (i.e., chemotherapy, radiation) that increase risk for DM in childhood cancer survivors may be more than additive with established DM risk factors (e.g., older age, obesity, race, and ethnicity). Emerging research also points to parallels in cellular processes implicated in aging- and cancer treatment-related DM. Still, there remains marked inter-individual variability regarding risk of DM that is not explained by demographic and therapeutic risk factors alone. Recent studies have highlighted the role of germline genetic risk factors and epigenetic modifications that are associated with risk of DM in both the general and oncology populations. This review summarizes our current understanding of recognized risk factors for DM in childhood cancer survivors to help inform targeted approaches for disease screening, prevention, and treatment. Furthermore, it highlights the existing scientific gaps in understanding the relative contributions of individual therapeutic exposures and the mechanisms by which they exert their effects that uniquely predispose this population to DM following cancer treatment

    Who died as a result of the tsunami? – Risk factors of mortality among internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka: a retrospective cohort analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Describing adverse health effects and identifying vulnerable populations during and after a disaster are important aspects of any disaster relief operation. This study aimed to describe the mortality and related risk factors which affected the displaced population over a period of two and a half months after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in an eastern coastal district of Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 13 evacuation camps for internally displaced persons (IDP). Information on all pre-tsunami family members was collected from householders, and all deaths which occurred during the recall period (77 to 80 days starting from the day of the tsunami) were recorded. The distribution of mortality and associated risk factors were analysed. Logistic regression modelling using the generalized estimating equations method was applied in multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Overall mortality rate out of 3,533 individuals from 859 households was 12.9% (446 deaths and 11 missing persons). The majority of the deaths occurred during and immediately after the disaster. A higher mortality was observed among females (17.5% vs. 8.2% for males, p < 0.001), children and the elderly (31.8%, 23.7% and 15.3% for children aged less than 5 years, children aged 5 to 9 years and adults over 50 years, respectively, compared with 7.4% for adults aged 20 to 29 years, p < 0.001). Other risk factors, such as being indoors at the time of the tsunami (13.8% vs. 5.9% outdoors, p < 0.001), the house destruction level (4.6%, 5.5% and 14.2% in increasing order of destruction, p < 0.001) and fishing as an occupation (15.4% vs. 11.2% for other occupations, p < 0.001) were also significantly associated with increased mortality. These correlations remained significant after adjusting for the confounding effects by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: A significantly high mortality was observed in women and children among the displaced population in the eastern coastal district of Sri Lanka who were examined by us. Reconstruction activities should take into consideration these changes in population structure

    Improving the Power of Chronic Disease Surveillance by Incorporating Residential History

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    We present a global test for disease clustering with power to identify disturbances from the null population distribution which accounts for the lag time between the date of exposure and the date of diagnosis. Location at diagnosis is often used as a surrogate for the location of exposure, however, the causative exposure could have occurred at a previous address in a case’s residential history. We incorporate models for the incubation distribution of a disease to weight each address in the residential history by the corresponding probability of the exposure occurring at that address. We then introduce a test statistic which uses these incubation-weighted addresses to test for a difference between the spatial distribution of the cases and the spatial distribution of the controls, or the background population. We follow the construction of the M statistic to evaluate the significance of these new distance distributions. Our results show that gains in detection power when residential history is accounted for are of such a degree that it might make the qualitative difference between the presence of spatial clustering being detected or not, thus making a strong argument for the inclusion of residential history in the analysis of such data

    Strategies to prevent anthracycline-related congestive heart failure in survivors of childhood

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    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of therapy-related morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of childhood malignancy. In fact, childhood cancer survivors are at a 15-fold risk of developing CHF compared to age-matched controls. There is a strong dose-dependent association between anthracycline exposure and risk of CHF, and the incidence increases with longer followup. Outcome following diagnosis of CHF is generally poor, with overall survival less than 50% at 5 years. The growing number of childhood cancer survivors makes it imperative that strategies be developed to prevent symptomatic heart disease in this vulnerable population. We present here an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies for childhood cancer survivors at high risk for CHF, drawing on lessons learned from prevention studies in nononcology populations as well as from the more limited experience in cancer survivors

    Strategies to Prevent Anthracycline-Related Congestive Heart Failure in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

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    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of therapy-related morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of childhood malignancy. In fact, childhood cancer survivors are at a 15-fold risk of developing CHF compared to age-matched controls. There is a strong dose-dependent association between anthracycline exposure and risk of CHF, and the incidence increases with longer followup. Outcome following diagnosis of CHF is generally poor, with overall survival less than 50% at 5 years. The growing number of childhood cancer survivors makes it imperative that strategies be developed to prevent symptomatic heart disease in this vulnerable population. We present here an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies for childhood cancer survivors at high risk for CHF, drawing on lessons learned from prevention studies in nononcology populations as well as from the more limited experience in cancer survivors

    National Cancer Institute–National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium First International Consensus Conference on Late Effects After Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Long-Term Organ Damage and Dysfunction

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    Long-term complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been studied in detail. Although virtually every organ system can be adversely affected after HCT, the underlying pathophysiology of these late effects remain incompletely understood. This article describes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of late effects involving the gastrointestinal, renal, cardiac, and pulmonary systems, and discusses post-HCT metabolic syndrome studies. Underlying diseases, pretransplantation exposures, transplantation conditioning regimens, graft-versus-host disease, and other treatments contribute to these problems. Because organ systems are interdependent, long-term complications with similar pathophysiologic mechanisms often involve multiple organ systems. Current data suggest that post-HCT organ complications result from cellular damage that leads to a cascade of complex events. The interplay between inflammatory processes and dysregulated cellular repair likely contributes to end-organ fibrosis and dysfunction. Although many long-term problems cannot be prevented, appropriate monitoring can enable detection and organ-preserving medical management at earlier stages. Current management strategies are aimed at minimizing symptoms and optimizing function. There remain significant gaps in our knowledge of the pathophysiology of therapy-related organ toxicities disease after HCT. These gaps can be addressed by closely examining disease biology and identifying those patients at greatest risk for adverse outcomes. In addition, strategies are needed for targeted disease prevention and health promotion efforts for individuals deemed at high risk because of their genetic makeup or specific exposure profile
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