114 research outputs found

    Eksperttiopettajan kielikasvatuksen käyttöteoria monikielisten lasten varhaiskasvatuksessa

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    In this case study we examine the practical theory of an expert teacher implementing bilingual pedagogy (Finnish-Swedish) in early childhood education with multilingual children. Practical theory refers to the pedagogical vision that guides a teacher’s actions and the focus of this study is the expert teacher’s practical theory regarding the use of different languages. The two research questions address the key aspects of the teacher’s practical theory and how these aspects related to the different languages. The dataset from two interviews with the expert teacher were thematically analyzed. The findings show that the teacher’s practical theory is constructed from a core value (equality of languages) and various aims and principles (e.g., mutual learning, supporting language-identities and pedagogical tact) that were closely intertwined. The findings suggest that in the expert teacher’s use of Finnish and Swedish the intent was to expand the children’s language resources whereas in the use of the children’s home language the purpose was to acknowledge and utilize their languages while creating language appreciation.Tässä tapaustutkimuksessa tarkastelemme, millainen käyttöteoria kaksikielistä pedagogiikkaa (suomi-ruotsi) varhaiskasvatuksessa toteuttavalla eksperttiopettajalla on eri kielten käytöstä monikielisten lasten kanssa toimiessa. Käyttöteorialla tarkoitetaan tässä pedagogista näkemystä, joka ohjaa opettajan toimintaa. Käyttöteoriaa eri kielten käytöstä lähestyttiin kahden tutkimuskysymyksen kautta, joissa tarkasteltiin kielikasvatuksen käyttöteorian keskeisiä osa-alueita ja niiden ilmenemistä eri kielissä. Aineistona oli yhden eksperttiopettajan kaksi haastattelua, jotka analysoitiin laadullisella temaattisella analyysillä. Tulokset osoittavat, että opettajan kielikasvatuksen käyttöteoriassa korostui yksi arvo (kielten yhtäläinen arvo) sekä useat tavoitteet ja periaatteet (esim. vastavuoroinen oppiminen, kieli-identiteetin tukeminen ja pedagoginen tahdikkuus), jotka olivat tiiviisti yhteydessä toisiinsa. Tulosten perusteella suomen ja ruotsin käytössä opettajan pyrkimyksenä oli kasvattaa monikielisten lasten kielellisiä resursseja. Lasten kotikielten käytöllä opettaja puolestaan tähtäsi ensisijaisesti lasten olemassa olevien kieliresurssien huomiointiin, hyödyntämiseen ja arvostukseen

    Life Satisfaction and Online-Gambling Communities : A Cross-National Study of Gambling Activities Among Young Finnish, American, South Korean and Spanish People

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    Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2021, The Author(s).Gambling is a potential hazard to life satisfaction, yet peer relationships online might buffer this risk. This study analyzed the ways problem gambling is associated with life satisfaction as well as the extent to which the use of online-gambling community participation and, alternatively, offline belonging affect this association. A web-based survey was conducted among people aged 15‚Äď25 in Finland (n = 1,200), the United States (n = 1,212), South Korea (n = 1,192), and Spain (n = 1,212). The main variables included life satisfaction, problem gambling measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, online-gambling community participation, and offline belonging. Controls included compulsive internet use, hazardous drinking, psychological distress, income, age, and gender. Linear regression models were employed with country interactions. Results showed problem gambling had a negative relationship with life satisfaction, but the association was explained by control variables. Online-gambling community participation had a positive relationship with life satisfaction, especially among pathological gamblers who had poor offline relationships. Country comparisons revealed that the direct effect of excessive gambling and the compensating effect of online-gambling communities were most prominent in Finland.Peer reviewe

    Social Ecological Model of Problem Gambling: A Cross-National Survey Study of Young People in the United States, South Korea, Spain, and Finland

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    Problem gambling among young people is an emerging trend globally. The online environment in particular offers various possibilities for gambling engagement. This is the first cross-national survey study using the social ecological model to analyze problem gambling, especially in the online context. The study aimed to analyze how different social ecological spheres explain problem gambling. Participants were young people aged 15‚Äď25 in the United States (n = 1212), South Korea (n = 1192), Spain (n = 1212), and Finland (n = 1200). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) instrument measured problem gambling. The regression models analyzed problem gambling with measures of intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and societal spheres. Spanish participants had the highest SOGS score for problem gambling. In all countries, the variations in problem gambling were best explained by the organizational sphere measures (26%) when compared to the intrapersonal (11%), interpersonal (5%), and societal (3%) spheres. In the full model, the organizational sphere measures had strong associations with problem gambling. These included consumer debt, online gambling community participation, online casino participation, and exposure to online pop-up advertisements. Problem gambling was also associated with conformity to group norms in the interpersonal sphere, and male gender and impulsivity in the intrapersonal sphere. Cross-national results were similar in different countries. Within the final model, gambling community participation had the strongest association with problem gambling (ő≤ = 0.23, p < 0.001). The online context plays a major role in problem gambling behavior. The social ecological model is a useful tool for tackling problem gambling and developing preventative measures

    Online Relationships and Social Media Interaction in Youth Problem Gambling: A Four-Country Study

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    The objective of this study was to examine if belonging to online communities and social media identity bubbles predict youth problem gambling. An online survey was administered to 15‚Äď25-year-old participants in the United States (N = 1212), South Korea (N = 1192), Spain (N = 1212), and Finland (N = 1200). The survey measured two dimensions of online behavior: perceived sense of belonging to an online community and involvement in social media identity bubbles. Belonging to an online community was examined with a single item and involvement in social media identity bubbles was measured with the six-item Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale. The South Oaks Gambling Screen was used to assess problem gambling. Statistical analyses utilized linear regression modeling. According to the analyses, strong sense of belonging to an online community was associated with higher problem gambling, but the association was observed mainly among those young individuals who were also involved in social media identity bubbles. For those youths who did not indicate identity bubble involvement, online relationships appeared to function as those offline. Some differences across the four countries were observed but overall, the results indicate that social media identity bubbles could partly explain the harmful influence that some online relations have on youth behavior

    Traffic Jams Reduce Hydrolytic Efficiency of Cellulase on Cellulose Surface

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    Abstract A deeper mechanistic understanding of the saccharification of cellulosic biomass could enhance the efficiency of biofuels development. We report here the real-time visualization of crystalline cellulose degradation by individual cellulase enzymes using an advanced version of high-speed atomic force microscopy. Trichoderma reesei 2 cellobiohydrolase I (TrCel7A) molecules were observed to slide unidirectionally along the crystalline cellulose surface, but at one point exhibited collective halting analogous to a traffic jam. Changing the crystalline polymorphic form of cellulose by an ammonia treatment increased the apparent number of accessible lanes on the crystalline surface and consequently the number of moving cellulase molecules. Treatment of this bulky crystalline cellulose simultaneously or separately with T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II (TrCel6A) resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of mobile enzyme molecules on the surface. Cellulose was completely degraded by the synergistic action between the two enzymes

    Improved synthesis of [18F] fallypride and characterization of a Huntington’s disease mouse model, zQ175DN KI, using longitudinal PET imaging of D2/D3 receptors

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    Dopamine receptors are involved in pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, including Huntington’s disease (HD). PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in HD patients has demonstrated 40% decrease in D2R binding in striatum, and D2R could be a reliable quantitative target to monitor disease progression. A D2/3R antagonist, [18F] fallypride, is a high-affinity radioligand that has been clinically used to study receptor density and occupancy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report an improved synthesis method for [18F]fallypride. In addition, high molar activity of the ligand has allowed us to apply PET imaging to characterize D2/D3 receptor density in striatum of the recently developed zQ175DN knock-in (KI) mouse model of HD.Peer reviewe
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