257 research outputs found

    Systemic Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increases Neuron Survival after Global Cerebral Ischemia In Vivo (2VO)

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    Although many studies have shown that administration of stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia improves brain damage, very little data are available concerning the damage induced by global cerebral ischemia. The latter causes neuronal death in selectively vulnerable areas, including the hippocampal CA1 region. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrowderived stromal cells (mesenchimal stem cells, MSC) reduce brain damage after transient global ischemia. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats transient global ischemia was induced using bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min in addition to controlled hypotension. Five days after, the animals were anaesthetized with urethane and the brain was fixed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to investigate histological damage. MSC did not fully protect against ischemic damage, as the number of viable neurons in this group was lower than in normal (sham-operated) rats. However, in MSC-treated rats the number of viable CA1 pyramidal neurons was significally higher than in rats that had been subjected to ischemia but not treated with MSC. We conclude that intravenous administration of MSC after transient global ischemia reduces hippocampal damage

    The molecular signature of therapeutic mesenchymal stem cells exposes the architecture of the hematopoietic stem cell niche synapse

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    BACKGROUND: The hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) niche of the bone marrow is comprised of HSCs, osteoblasts, endothelial cells and a stromal component of non-hematopoietic multipotent cells of mesenchymal origin named "mesenchymal stem cells" (MSCs). RESULTS: Here we studied the global transcriptional profile of murine MSCs with immuno-therapeutic potential and compared it with that of 486 publicly available microarray datasets from 12 other mouse tissues or cell types. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering identified a unique pattern of gene expression capable of distinctively classifying MSCs from other tissues and cells. We then performed an analysis aimed to identify absolute and relative abundance of transcripts in all cell types. We found that the set of transcripts uniquely expressed by MSCs is enriched in transcription factors and components of the Wnt signaling pathway. The analysis of differentially expressed genes also identified a set of genes specifically involved in the HSC niche and is complemented by functional studies that confirm the findings. Interestingly, some of these genes play a role in the maintenance of HSCs in a quiescent state supporting their survival and preventing them from proliferating and differentiating. We also show that MSCs modulate T cell functions in vitro and, upon in vivo administration, ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). CONCLUSION: Altogether, these findings provide novel and important insights on the mechanisms of T cell function regulation by MSCs and help to cement the rationale for their application in the treatment of autoimmune diseases

    The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is mediated by peripheral and central mechanisms

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    Stem cells are currently seen as a treatment for tissue regeneration in neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, anticipating that they integrate and differentiate into neural cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a subset of adult progenitor cells, differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage but also, under certain experimental circumstances, into cells of the neuronal and glial lineage. Their clinical development, however, has been significantly boosted by the demonstration that MSCs display significant therapeutic plasticity mainly occurring through bystander mechanisms. These features have been exploited in the effective treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis where the inhibition of the autoimmune response resulted in a significant amelioration of disease and decrease of demyelination, immune infiltrates and axonal loss. Surprisingly, these effects do not require MSCs to engraft in the central nervous system but depend on the cells' ability to inhibit pathogenic immune responses both in the periphery and inside the central nervous system and to release neuroprotective and pro-oligodendrogenic molecules favoring tissue repair. These results paved the road for the utilization of MSCs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Relationship between retinal inner nuclear layer, age, and disease activity in progressive MS

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    ObjectiveTo investigate whether inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness as assessed with optical coherence tomography differs between patients with progressive MS (P-MS) according to age and disease activity.MethodsIn this retrospective longitudinal analysis, differences in terms of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), INL and T1/T2 lesion volumes (T1LV/T2LV) were assessed between 84 patients with P-MS and 36 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and between patients stratified according to age (cut-off: 51 years) and evidence of clinical/MRI activity in the previous 12 monthsResultspRNFL and GCIPL thickness were significantly lower in patients with P-MS than in HCs (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively). INL was significantly thicker in patients aged < 51 years compared to the older ones and HCs (38.2 vs 36.5 and 36.7 m; p = 0.038 and p = 0.04, respectively) and in those who presented MRI activity (new T2/gadolinium-enhancing lesions) in the previous 12 months compared to the ones who did not and HCs (39.5 vs 36.4 and 36.7 m; p = 0.003 and p = 0.008, respectively). Recent MRI activity was significantly predicted by greater INL thickness (Nagelkerke R2 0.36, p = 0.001).ConclusionsINL thickness was higher in younger patients with P-MS with recent MRI activity, a criterion used in previous studies to identify a specific subset of patients with P-MS who best responded to disease-modifying treatment. If this finding is confirmed, we suggest that INL thickness might be a useful tool in stratification of patients with P-MS for current and experimental treatment choic

    Phenotypic and functional characterisation of CCR7(+ )and CCR7(- )CD4(+ )memory T cells homing to the joints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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    The aim of the study was to characterise CCR7(+ )and CCR7(- )memory T cells infiltrating the inflamed joints of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to investigate the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of these cell subsets in relation to the expression of the inflammatory chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5. Memory T cells freshly isolated from the peripheral blood and synovial fluid (SF) of 25 patients with JIA were tested for the expression of CCR7, CCR5, CXCR3 and interferon-Îł by flow cytometry. The chemotactic activity of CD4 SF memory T cells from eight patients with JIA to inflammatory (CXCL11 and CCL3) and homeostatic (CCL19, CCL21) chemokines was also evaluated. Paired serum and SF samples from 28 patients with JIA were tested for CCL21 concentrations. CCR7, CXCR3, CCR5 and CCL21 expression in synovial tissue from six patients with JIA was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Enrichment of CD4(+), CCR7(- )memory T cells was demonstrated in SF in comparison with paired blood from patients with JIA. SF CD4(+)CCR7(- )memory T cells were enriched for CCR5(+ )and interferon-Îł(+ )cells, whereas CD4(+)CCR7(+ )memory T cells showed higher coexpression of CXCR3. Expression of CCL21 was detected in both SF and synovial membranes. SF CD4(+ )memory T cells displayed significant migration to both inflammatory and homeostatic chemokines. CCR7(+ )T cells were detected in the synovial tissue in either diffuse perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates or organised lymphoid aggregates. In synovial tissue, a large fraction of CCR7(+ )cells co-localised with CXCR3, especially inside lymphoid aggregates, whereas CCR5(+ )cells were enriched in the sublining of the superficial subintima. In conclusion, CCR7 may have a role in the synovial recruitment of memory T cells in JIA, irrespective of the pattern of lymphoid organisation. Moreover, discrete patterns of chemokine receptor expression are detected in the synovial tissue

    In vitro evaluation of cell-seeded chitosan films for peripheral nerve tissue engineering

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    Natural biomaterials have attracted an increasing interest in the field of tissue-engineered nerve grafts, representing a possible alternative to autologous nerve transplantation. With the prospect of developing a novel entubulation strategy for transected nerves with cell-seeded chitosan films, we examined the biocompatibility of such films in vitro. Different types of rat Schwann cells (SCs)-immortalized, neonatal, and adult-as well as rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were analyzed with regard to their cell metabolic activity, proliferation profiles, and cell morphology after different time points of mono-and cocultures on the chitosan films. Overall the results demonstrate a good cytocompatibility of the chitosan substrate. Both cell types were viable on the biomaterial and showed different metabolic activities and proliferation behavior, indicating cell-type-specific cell-biomaterial interaction. Moreover, the cell types also displayed their typical morphology. In cocultures adult SCs used the BMSCs as a feeder layer and no negative interactions between both cell types were detected. Further, the chitosan films allow neurite outgrowth from dissociated sensory neurons, which is additionally supported on film preseeded with SC-BMSC cocultures. The presented chitosan films therefore demonstrate high potential for their use in tissue-engineered nerve grafts.This work was supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-HEALTH-2011) under grant agreement No. 278612. This work was also co-funded by Programa Operacional Regional do Norte (ON.2-O Novo Norte), ao abrigo do Quadro de Referencia Estrategico Nacional (QREN), and atraves do Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER). The authors gratefully acknowledge the delivery of the chitosan raw material by Altakitin S.A., Portugal, and the fabrication of chitosan films by Medovent GmbH, Germany

    Characterization of mouse spinal cord vascular network by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray phase contrast tomography

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    High resolution Synchrotron-based X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography (XPCT) allows the simultaneous detection of three dimensional neuronal and vascular networks without using contrast agents or invasive casting preparation. We show and discuss the different features observed in reconstructed XPCT volumes of the ex vivo mouse spinal cord in the lumbo-sacral region, including motor neurons and blood vessels. We report the application of an intensity-based segmentation method to detect and quantitatively characterize the modification in the vascular networks in terms of reduction in experimental visibility. In particular, we apply our approach to the case of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), i.e. human multiple sclerosis animal model