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    Roquilly, Antoine

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    Turing Pattern Formation in Reaction-Cross-Diffusion Systems with a Bilayer Geometry

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    Conditions for self-organisation via Turing’s mechanism in biological systems represented by reaction-diffusion or reaction-cross-diffusion models have been extensively studied. Nonetheless, the impact of tissue stratification in such systems is under-explored, despite its ubiquity in the context of a thin epithelium overlying connective tissue, for instance the epidermis and underlying dermal mesenchyme of embryonic skin. In particular, each layer can be subject to extensively different biochemical reactions and transport processes, with chemotaxis - a special case of cross-diffusion - often present in the mesenchyme, contrasting the solely molecular transport typically found in the epidermal layer. We study Turing patterning conditions for a class of reaction-cross-diffusion systems in bilayered regions, with a thin upper layer and coupled by a linear transport law. In particular, the role of differential transport through the interface is explored together with the presence of asymmetry between the homogeneous equilibria of the two layers. A linear stability analysis is carried out around a spatially homogeneous equilibrium state in the asymptotic limit of weak and strong coupling strengths, where quantitative approximations of the bifurcation curve can be computed. Our theoretical findings, for an arbitrary number of reacting species, reveal quantitative Turing conditions, highlighting when the coupling mechanism between the layered regions can either trigger patterning or stabilize a spatially homogeneous equilibrium regardless of the independent patterning state of each layer. We support our theoretical results through direct numerical simulations, and provide an open source code to explore such systems further

    Low-flow ECCO2R conjoined with renal replacement therapy platform to manage pulmonary vascular dysfunction with refractory hypercapnia in ARDS

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    Background: Hypercapnia worsens lung vascular dysfunction during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We tested whether an extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) device based on a renal replacement therapy platform (PrismalungÂź) may reduce PaCO2 and alleviate lung vascular dysfunction in ARDS patients with refractory hypercapnia. Methods: We planned to prospectively include 20 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS, pulmonary vascular dysfunction on echocardiography, and PaCO2 ≄ 48 mmHg despite instrumental dead space reduction and the increase in respiratory rate. Hemodynamics, echocardiography, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gases were recorded at 2 (H2), 6 (H6) and 24 (H24) hours as ECCO2R treatment was continued for at least 24 h. Results: Only eight patients were included, and the study was stopped due to worldwide shortage of ECCO2R membranes and the pandemic. Only one patient fulfilled the primary endpoint criterion (decrease in PaCO2 of more than 20 %) at H2, but this objective was achieved in half of patients (n = 4) at H6. The percentage of patients with a PaCO2 value < 48 mmHg increased with time, from 0/8 (0 %) at H0, to 3/8 (37.5 %) at H2 and 4/8 (50 %) at H6 (p = 0.04). There was no major change in hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables with ECCO2R, except for a significant decrease in heart rate. ECCO2R was prematurely discontinued before H24 in five (62.5 %) patients, due to membrane clotting in all cases. Conclusions: This pilot study testing showed a narrow efficacy and high rate of membrane thrombosis with the first version of the system. Improved versions should be tested in future trials. Trial registration: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT03303807, Registered: October 6, 2017, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03303807

    sj-xlsx-2-vet-10.1177_03009858231222216 – Supplemental material for Humanization with CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells in NOG-EXL mice results in improved long-term survival and less severe myeloid cell hyperactivation phenotype relative to NSG-SGM3 mice

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    Supplemental material, sj-xlsx-2-vet-10.1177_03009858231222216 for Humanization with CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells in NOG-EXL mice results in improved long-term survival and less severe myeloid cell hyperactivation phenotype relative to NSG-SGM3 mice by Elinor Willis, Jillian Verrelle, Esha Banerjee, Charles-Antoine Assenmacher, James C. Tarrant, Nicholas Skuli, Moriah L. Jacobson, Donald M. O’Rouke, Zev A. Binder and Enrico Radaelli in Veterinary Pathology</p

    Fava bean (Vicia faba L.) protein concentrate added to beef burgers improves the bioaccessibility of some free essential amino acids after in vitro oral and gastrointestinal digestion

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    International audienceThe influence of partial replacement of animal protein by plant-based ingredients on the protein digestibility of beef burgers was investigated. Beef burgers were supplemented with fava bean protein concentrate (FB) or a mixture of FB and flaxseed flour (FBFS), both processed by extrusion, at different levels: 0 (control), 10, 15, and 20 % (w/w). A pilot sensory analysis was conducted to select the percentage of flour inclusion for further assays: control, 10 % FB, and 10 % FBFS. Protein digestibility, amino acid profile, and protein secondary structure of these burgers after in vitro oral and gastrointestinal digestion were studied. In vitro boluses were prepared with the AM2 masticator, simulating normal mastication, and static in vitro digestion of boluses was performed according to the INFOGEST method. Inclusion of 10 % FB in beef burgers did not alter their flavour or tenderness compared to the control, whereas tenderness and juiciness scored slightly higher for the 10 % FBFS burgers compared to 15 % and 20 % FBFS ones. Poor lipid oxidative stability during storage was observed with 10 % FBFS burgers. Total protein content was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 10 % FB burgers than in control burgers after in vitro oral digestion. Additionally, 10 % FB burgers presented higher amounts of free essential amino acids like isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine at the end of digestion, as well as methionine, tyrosine, and histidine. Partial substitution of meat protein by 10 % FB improves the nutritional profile of beef burgers, without altering their sensory qualities

    Efficiency of neural quantum states in light of the quantum geometric tensor

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    Neural quantum state (NQS) ans\"atze have shown promise in variational Monte Carlo algorithms by their theoretical capability of representing any quantum state. However, the reason behind the practical improvement in their performance with an increase in the number of parameters is not fully understood. In this work, we systematically study the efficiency of restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) to represent the ground states in different phases of the spin-1 bilinear-biquadratic model, as the hidden layer density α\alpha increases. We train our ansatz by minimizing two different loss functions: 1) energy, and 2) infidelity of the NQS ansatz w.r.t. that of the exact ground state. We observe that the accuracy of our ansatz saturates with α\alpha in both cases. We demonstrate that this can be explained by looking at the spectrum of the quantum geometric tensor (QGT). We find that the rank of the QGT saturates beyond a certain α\alpha, and we emphasize that it corresponds to the \textit{dimension of the relevant manifold} for an optimized NQS. This provides a useful diagnostics for the practical representation power of an NQS ansatz

    The habits of European urologists in the field of cryopreservation before the urological cancers treatment

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    International audienceAbstract Introduction Treatments against urogenital cancers frequently have fertility side‐effects. The strategy to preserve fertility after oncologic treatments is still a matter of debate with a lack of evidence and international guidelines. The aim of this study is to investigate fertility preservation practices before urogenital cancer treatments and to compare national habits. Material and methods An online anonymous survey was submitted from January to June 2021 to six European urological societies. The 31‐items questionnaire included questions about demography, habits of evaluation, and management of fertility preservation in case of urogenital cancer treatments. Results Two hundred twenty‐eight urologists from six urological societies in five different countries (Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Finland) filled out the survey. Three quarter (74%; n = 166) usually propose a cryopreservation before orchidectomy. In case of oligo/azoo‐spermia, the technique performed for the sperm extraction during orchidectomy varies among the sample: 70.5% ( n = 160) of the responders do not perform a Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) nor a Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA). The cryopreservation for prostate cancer treatments is never proposed in 48.17% ( n = 105) of responders but conversely it is always proposed in 5.05% ( n = 11). The cryopreservation before bladder cancer treatments is not commonly proposed (67.5%, n = 154). Conclusion Our study showed variable country specific tendencies in terms of fertility preservation in the period of treatment of urological cancers. These differences seem to be related to national guidelines recommendations. Standardization of international guidelines is urgently needed in the field of fertility for urological cancer patients