180 research outputs found

    Prion Infectivity and PrPBSE in the Peripheral and Central Nervous System of Cattle 8 Months Post Oral BSE Challenge

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    After oral exposure of cattle with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), the infectious agent ascends from the gut to the central nervous system (CNS) primarily via the autonomic nervous system. However, the timeline of this progression has thus far remained widely undetermined. Previous studies were focused on later time points after oral exposure of animals that were already 4 to 6 months old when challenged. In contrast, in this present study, we have orally inoculated 4 to 6 weeks old unweaned calves with high doses of BSE to identify any possible BSE infectivity and/or PrPBSE in peripheral nervous tissues during the first eight months postinoculation (mpi). For the detection of BSE infectivity, we used a bovine PrP transgenic mouse bioassay, while PrPBSE depositions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). We were able to show that as early as 8 mpi the thoracic spinal cord as well as the parasympathetic nodal ganglion of these animals contained PrPBSE and BSE infectivity. This shows that the centripetal prion spread starts early after challenge at least in this age group, which represents an essential piece of information for the risk assessments for food, feed, and pharmaceutical products produced from young calves

    Prion Infectivity and PrPBSE in the Peripheral and Central Nervous System of Cattle 8 Months Post Oral BSE Challenge

    No full text
    After oral exposure of cattle with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), the infectious agent ascends from the gut to the central nervous system (CNS) primarily via the autonomic nervous system. However, the timeline of this progression has thus far remained widely undetermined. Previous studies were focused on later time points after oral exposure of animals that were already 4 to 6 months old when challenged. In contrast, in this present study, we have orally inoculated 4 to 6 weeks old unweaned calves with high doses of BSE to identify any possible BSE infectivity and/or PrPBSE in peripheral nervous tissues during the first eight months postinoculation (mpi). For the detection of BSE infectivity, we used a bovine PrP transgenic mouse bioassay, while PrPBSE depositions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). We were able to show that as early as 8 mpi the thoracic spinal cord as well as the parasympathetic nodal ganglion of these animals contained PrPBSE and BSE infectivity. This shows that the centripetal prion spread starts early after challenge at least in this age group, which represents an essential piece of information for the risk assessments for food, feed, and pharmaceutical products produced from young calves

    Annual (2023) taxonomic update of RNA-directed RNA polymerase-encoding negative-sense RNA viruses (realm Riboviria: kingdom Orthornavirae: phylum Negarnaviricota)

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    Laulima Government Solutions, LLC, prime contract with the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract No. HHSN272201800013C. J.H.K. performed this work as an employee of Tunnell Government Services (TGS), a subcontractor of Laulima Government Solutions, LLC, under Contract No. HHSN272201800013C. U.J.B. was supported by the Division of Intramural Resarch, NIAID. This work was also funded in part by Contract No. HSHQDC15-C-00064 awarded by DHS S and T for the management and operation of The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Centre, a federally funded research and development centre operated by the Battelle National Biodefense Institute (V.W.); and NIH contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.). S.S. acknowledges support from the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station (MAFES), USDA-ARS project 58-6066-9-033 and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Hatch Project, under Accession Number 1‚ÄČ021‚ÄČ494.National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. Division of Clinical Research. Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Frederick, MD, USA.Hokkaido Research Organization. Agricultural Research Department. Ornamental Plants and Vegetables Research Center. Takikawa, Hokkaido, Japan.United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. US Horticultural Research Laboratory. Fort Pierce, FL, USA.D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology of N.F. Gamaleya National Center on Epidemiology and Microbiology of Ministry of Health of Russian Federation. Moscow, Russia.University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Medicine. Institute of Microbiology and Immunology. Ljubljana, Slovenia.Instituto Nacional de Investigaci√≥n y Tecnolog√≠a Agraria y Alimentaria - Campus de Montegancedo. Departamento de Biotecnolog√≠a-Biolog√≠a Vegetal. Centro de Biotecnolog√≠a y Gen√≥mica de Plantas. Pozuelo de Alarc√≥n / Universidad Polit√©cnica de Madrid. Escuela T√©cnica Superior de Ingenier√≠a Agron√≥mica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas. Madrid, Spain.University of Georgia. Insitute of Bioinformatics. Department of Infectious Diseases, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Center for Ecology of Infectious Diseases. Athens, GA, USA.Greifswald-Insel Riems. Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut. Greifswald, Germany.Mississippi State University. Department of Biological Sciences. Mississippi State, MS, USA.ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute. Division of Plant Pathology. New Delhi, India.Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut. Institute of Diagnostic Virology. Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Unidad de Fitopatologia y Modelizacion Agricola. C√≥rdoba, Argentina.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Special Pathogens Branch. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology. Atlanta, GA, USA.Philipps-University Marburg. Institute of Virology. Marburg, Germany.Colorado State University. Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology. Fort Collins, CO, USA.Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Australia.Agroscope. Virology-Phytoplasmology Laboratory. Nyon, Switzerland.University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center. Albuquerque, NM, USA.Columbia University. Mailman School of Public Health. Center for Infection and Immunity, and Department of Epidemiology. New York, USA.French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Heath Safety. Laboratory of Ploufragan-Plouzan√©-Niort. Ploufragan, France.National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Laboratory of Infectious Diseases. RNA Viruses Section. Bethesda, MD, USA.University of California. Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry. Irvine, CA, USA.The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Galveston, TX, USA.University of the Free State. National Health Laboratory Service and Division of Virology. Division of Virology. Bloemfontein, South Africa.Faculty of Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universit√§t zu Berlin. Division Phytomedicine. Berlin, Germany.Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO, USA.Southwest University. Citrus Research Institute. National Citrus Engineering and Technology Research Center. Beibei, Chongqing, PR China.Instituto de Salud Carlos III. National Microbiology Center. Respiratory Virus and Influenza Unit. Madrid, Spain.Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Bronx, NY, USA.Unite des Virus Emergents -Aix-Marseille Univ-IRD 190-Inserm 1207. Marseille, France.ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute. Centre for Agricultural Bioinformatics. New Delhi, India.The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited. Auckland, New Zealand.National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Frederick, MD, USA.Universidad de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales. CIDEFI. La Plata, Argentina.The Scripps Research Institute. Department of Immunology and Microbiology IMM-6. La Jolla, CA, USA.The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses. Galveston, TX, USA.Wageningen Bioveterinary Research. Department of Virology. Lelystad, Netherlands.Instituto de Patolog√≠a Vegetal. 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Berlin, Germany.University of Warwick. School of Life Sciences. Coventry, UK.Hacettepe University. Faculty of Medicine. Department of Medical Microbiology. Virology Unit. Ankara, Turkey.Museum Support Center. Smithsonian Institution. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. Suitland, MD, USA / Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. One Health Branch. Silver Spring, MD, USA / Smithsonian Institution-National Museum of Natural History. Department of Entomology. Washington, DC, USA / China National Rice Research Institute. Hangzhou, PR China.University of Cambridge. Department of Pathology. Cambridge, UK.Animal and Plant Health Agency. eybridge, Surrey, UK.World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.Embrapa Cassava and Fruits. Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil.Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg. Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Halle/Saale, Germany.Instituto de Biotecnolog√≠a y Biolog√≠a Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. La Plata, Argentina.Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. New York, NY, USA.Brandenburg State Office of Rural Development. Agriculture and Land Consolidation. Frankfurt, Germany.Humboldt-Universit√§t Zu Berlin. Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences. Division Phytomedicine. Berlin, Germany.Ministry of Education. Jilin University. College of Veterinary Medicine. Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Research. State Key Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases. Changchun, PR China / Georgetown University. School of Medicine. Division of Biomedical Graduate Research Organization. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Washington, DC, USA.Institute of Vertebrate Biology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Brno, CzechiaBoston University. National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories. Chobanian and Avedisian School of Medicine. Department of Virology, Immunology and Microbiology. Boston, MA, USA.Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut. Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.Bernhard-Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine. WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research. Department of Virology. Hamburg, Germany.United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service / United States Naval Academy. Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit. Beltsville, MD, USA.Hosei University. Department of Clinical Plant Science. Koganei, Tokyo, Japan.Kochi Agricultural Research Center. Nankoku, Kochi, Japan.University of Helsinki. Department of Virology. Medicum, Helsinki, Finland.University of Zurich. Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty. Zurich, Switzerland.Auckland University of Technology. The School of Science. Auckland, New Zealand.Yamagata University. Faculty of Medicine. Department of Infectious Diseases. Yamagata, Japan / Osaka Metropolitan University. Graduate School of Veterinary Science / Osaka Metropolitan University. International Research Center for Infectious Diseases. Izumisano, Osaka, Japan.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fort Collins, CO, USA.Murdoch University. School of Veterinary Medicine. Murdoch, WA, Australia.Kobe University. Graduate School of Agricultural Science. Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.Huazhong Agricultural University. State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology. Wuhan, Hubei Province, PR China.International Rice Research Institute. College. Los Ba√Īos, Laguna, Philippines.Charit√©-Universit√§tsmedizin Berlin. Freie Universit√§t Berlin. Corporate Member. Humboldt-Universit√§t zu Berlin. Berlin Institute of Health. Institute of Virology. Berlin, Germany.Slovak Academy of Sciences. Biomedical Research Center. Institute of Virology. Bratislava, Slovakia.Link√∂ping University. Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Link√∂ping, Sweden.Okayama University. Institute of Plant Science and Resources. Kurashiki, Japan.National Institutes of Health. National Library of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Bethesda, MD, USA.Institut Pasteur. Universit√© Paris Cit√©. CNRS UMR6047. Archaeal Virology Unit. Paris, France.National Agriculture and Food Research Organization. Institute for Plant Protection. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanUS Geological Survey Western Fisheries Research Center. Seattle, Washington, USA.KU Leuven. Rega Institute. Zoonotic Infectious Diseases unit / University Hospitals Leuven. Department of Laboratory Medicine. Leuven, Belgium.The Ohio State University. College of Veterinary Medicine. Department of Veterinary Biosciences. Columbus, OH, USA.Ningbo University. Institute of Plant Virology. Ningbo, PR China.Illumina-China. Beijing, PR China.University of Louisville. School of Medicine. Center for Predictive Medicine for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Louisville, KY, USA.The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited / The University of Auckland. School of Biological Sciences. Auckland, New Zealand.KU Leuven. Rega Institute. Zoonotic Infectious Diseases unit. Leuven, Belgium.FIND - The Global Alliance for Diagnostics. Geneva, Switzerland.Pontificia Universidad Cat√≥lica de Valpara√≠so-Campus Curauma. Instituto de Biolog√≠a-Laboratorio de Gen√©tica Molecular. Valpara√≠so, Chile.United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Toledo, OH, USA.Folkhalsomyndigheten. Stockholm, Sweden.Yamagata University. Department of Agriculture. Tsuruoka, Japan.Washington State University. Irrigated Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Department of Plant Pathology. Prosser, WA, USA.Utsunomiya University. Utsunomiya, Japan.Universitat Polit√®cnica de Val√®ncia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a Molecular y Celular de Plantas. Valencia, Spain.Utsunomiya University. School of Agriculture. Utsunomiya, Japan.Novosibirsk State University. Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.University of Wisconsin-Madison. Department of Pathobiological Sciences. Influenza Research Institute. Madison, USA.University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. Institute of Virology. Vienna, Austria.Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences. College of Medicine. Dubai, United Arab Emirates.Minist√©rio da Sa√ļde. Secretaria de Vigil√Ęncia em Sa√ļde e Ambiente. Instituto Evandro Chagas. Ananindeua, PA, Brasil.Oklahoma State University. Institute for Biosecurity and Microbial Forensics. Stillwater. Oklahoma, USA.Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Department of Microbiology. New York, NY, USA.Universitat Polit√®cnica de Valencia - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas. Instituto de Biolog√≠a Molecular y Celular de Plantas. Valencia, Spain.Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Department of Microbiology, Medical School. National Reference Centre for Arboviruses and Haemorrhagic Fever viruses. Thessaloniki, Greece.Robert Koch Institute. Genome Competence Center. Berlin, Germany / Cornell University. College of Veterinary Medicine. Baker Institute for Animal Health. Ithaca, NY, USA.Minist√©rio da Sa√ļde. Secretaria de Vigil√Ęncia em Sa√ļde e Ambiente. Instituto Evandro Chagas. Ananindeua, PA, Brasil.National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service. Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases. Sandringham-Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa.University of Georgia. College of Veterinary Medicine. Department of Population Health. Athens, GA, USA.Georgia State University Institute for Biomedical Sciences. Center for Translational Antiviral Research. Atlanta, GA, USA.International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory. Brooklyn, NY, USA.Auckland University of Technology. The School of Science / The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited. Auckland, New Zealand.Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Infectious Diseases. Division of Antivirals. Silver Spring, MD, USA.Instituto Biol√≥gico de S√£o Paulo. S√£o Paulo, SP, Brazil.Universidade de Bras√≠lia. Departamento de Biologia Celular. Bras√≠lia, DF, Brazil.Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Biotecnolog√≠a y Biolog√≠a Molecular. Buenos Aires, Argentina.University of Florida. College of Veterinary Medicine. Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology. Gainesville, Florida, USA.Tufts University Cummings. School of Veterinary Medicine. Department of Infectious Disease & Global Health. North Grafton, MA, USA.Mississippi State University. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology. Mississippi, Mississippi State, USA.The University of Sydney. School of Medical Sciences. Sydney Institute for Infectious Diseases. Sydney, Australia.University of Maryland. Department of Veterinary Medicine. College Park, MD, USA.National Agriculture and Food Research Organization. Institute for Plant Protection. Tsukuba, Japan.University Medical Center-University Freiburg. Faculty of Medicine. Freiburg, Germany.Western Sydney University. Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment. Sydney, NSW, Australia.Sun Yat-sen University. Shenzhen, PR China.Institute of Forest Biodiversity. Division of Genetics and Tree Improvement. Hyderabad, India.Scientific Institute IRCCS E. Medea. Bioinformatics Unit. Bosisio Parini, Italy.Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. CBR Division. Porton Down, Salisbury, UK.Korea University. College of Medicine. Department of Microbiology. Seoul, Republic of Korea.Queensland University of Technology. Faculty of Health. School of Biomedical Sciences. Brisbane, QLD, Australia.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology. Viral Special Pathogens Branch. Atlanta, GA, USA.Colorado State University. College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology. Fort Collins, CO, USA.Hokkaido University. International Institute for Zoonosis Control. Division of Global Epidemiology. Sapporo, Japan.Shizuoka Professional University of Agriculture. Faculty of Agricultural Production and Management. Shizuoka, Japan.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA, USA.Universidad San Sebasti√°n. Facultad de Medicina y Ciencia. Fundaci√≥n Ciencia & Vida. Centro Ciencia & Vida. Laboratorio de Virolog√≠a Molecular. Santiago, Chile.Kyoto University. Institute for Life and Medical Sciences. Kyoto, Japan.Institut Pasteur de Guin√©e. Conakry, Guinea.Yangzhou University. Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses. College of Veterinary Medicine. Yangzhou, PR China.Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Changchun Veterinary Research Institute. Changchun, PR China.Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy. Torino, Italy.University of Arkansas System. Division of Agriculture. Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology. Fayetteville, AR, USA.University Medical Centre Rotterdam. Erasmus MC. Department of Viroscience. Rotterdam, Netherlands.KU Leuven. Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation. Leuven, Belgium.The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Galveston, TX, USA.Wageningen University. Research, Biointeractions and Plant Health. Wageningen, Netherlands.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center. Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA.University of Queensland. School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences. St. Lucia, QLD, Australia.Washington State University. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology. Pullman, WA, USA.North Carolina State University. Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology. Raleigh, NC, USA.Chinese Academy of Sciences. Wuhan Institute of Virology. Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety. Wuhan, PR China.Agricultural University of Athens. School of Agricultural Production, Infrastructure and Environment. Department of Crop Science. Plant Pathology Laboratory. Votanikos, Athens, Greece.Yokohama Plant Protection Station. Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.Zhejiang University. Institute of Insect Sciences. Hangzhou, PR China.Universidade Federal de Vi√ßosa. Dep. de Fitopatologia/BIOAGRO. Vi√ßosa, MG, Brazil.Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Xinjiang Military Command Area. Xinjiang, PR China.Guangxi Academy of Specialty Crops. Guangxi, PR China / Fudan University. School of Life Sciences and Human Phenome Institute. Shanghai, PR China.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing, PR China.Pharmaq Analytiq. Bergen, Norway.Francis Crick Institute. Worldwide Influenza Centre. London, UK.Navarro, BeatrizIn April 2023, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by one new family, 14 new genera, and 140 new species. Two genera and 538 species were renamed. One species was moved, and four were abolished. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV

    The contribution of aquaculture systems to global aquaculture production

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    Abstract Since 2000, aquaculture became well‚Äźintegrated into the global food system. Aquaculture systems are highly diverse, producing globally equal amounts of fed and extractive species. In Asia and Africa, inland aquaculture provides the bulk of aquaculture production, while in the Americas, Europe, and Oceania, marine aquaculture dominates. The realized growth of annual production since 2000 is due to intensification, the use of more and better feeds, improved production management, and increased attention to biosecurity. Fed and extractive aquaculture, both need to pay more attention to scaling, site selection, and the health of the wider production environment. In terms of land use, aquaculture is more efficient than terrestrial animal production. Still, water use remains a challenge. More attention should be given to water recycling in land‚Äźbased systems, reducing water consumption and facilitating nutrient recovery and reuse. Future development should focus on making aquaculture climate neutral and on reducing environmental impacts, both inland and at sea. More attention must be given to making aquaculture an important part of local food systems on all continents, as is the case in Asia today. Integration of aquaculture into local nutrition‚Äźsensitive, circular, and sustainable food systems should become the major driver for future aquaculture system development

    Inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase cooperate with molnupiravir and N4-hydroxycytidine to suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication

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    Funding Information: We thank Thorsten Wolff, Daniel Bourquain, Jessica Schulz, and Christian Mache from the Robert-Koch Institute and Martin Beer from the Friedrich Loeffler Institute (FLI) for providing isolates of SARS-CoV-2 variants. We thank Anna Kraft and Gabriele Czerwinski (both FLI) for support in the preparation of samples for pathology, and Catherine Hambly (University of Aberdeen) for help with daily energy expenditure measurements. We would like to thank Cathrin Bierwirth (University Medical Center G√∂ttingen), Isabell Schulz, Anne-Kathrin Donner, and Frank-Thorben Peters for excellent technician assistance and Jasmin Fertey and Alexandra Rockstroh for providing the virus stocks for the mice experiment (Fraunhofer Institute IZI Leipzig). We acknowledge support by the Open Access Publication Funds of the G√∂ttingen University. KMS was a member of the G√∂ttingen Graduate School GGNB during this work. This work was funded by the COVID-19 Forschungsnetzwerk Niedersachsen (COFONI) to MD, by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research Germany ( Bundesministerium f√ľr Bildung und Forschung; BMBF ; OrganSARS , 01KI2058 ) to SP and TM, and by a grant of the Max Planck Foundation to DG. Declaration of interests AS, HK, EP, and DV are employees of Immunic AG and own shares and/or stock-options of the parent company of Immunic AG, Immunic Inc. Some of the Immunic AG employees also hold patents for the Immunic compounds described in this manuscript (WO2012/001,148, WO03006425). KMS, AD, and MD are employees of University Medical Center G√∂ttingen, which has signed a License Agreement with Immunic AG covering the combination of DHODH inhibitors and nucleoside analogs to treat viral infections, including COVID-19 (inventors: MD, KMS, and AD). The other authors declare no conflict of interest.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Serological Hendra Virus Diagnostics Using an Indirect ELISA-Based DIVA Approach with Recombinant Hendra G and N Proteins

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    Since the identification of Hendra virus (HeV) infections in horses in Australia in 1994, more than 80 outbreaks in horses have been reported, and four out of seven spillover infections in humans had a fatal outcome. With the availability of a subunit vaccine based on the HeV-Glycoprotein (HeV-G), there is a need to serologically Differentiate the Infected from the Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). We developed an indirect ELISA using HeV-G expressed in Leishmania tarentolae and HeV-Nucleoprotein (HeV-N) expressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells as antigens. During evaluation, we tested panels of sera from na√Įve, vaccinated and infected horses that either originated from a Hendra-virus free region, or had been pre-tested in validated diagnostic tests. Our data confirm the reliability of this approach, as HeV-N-specific antibodies were only detected in sera from infected horses, while HeV-G-specific antibodies were detected in infected and vaccinated horses with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. Given the excellent correlation of data obtained for German and Australian HeV-negative horses, we assume that this test can be applied for the testing of horse serum samples from a variety of geographical regions

    2022 taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales.

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    In March 2022, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by two new families (bunyaviral Discoviridae and Tulasviridae), 41 new genera, and 98 new species. Three hundred forty-nine species were renamed and/or moved. The accidentally misspelled names of seven species were corrected. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV

    2022 taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales

    No full text
    In March 2022, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by two new families (bunyaviral Discoviridae and Tulasviridae), 41 new genera, and 98 new species. Three hundred forty-nine species were renamed and/or moved. The accidentally misspelled names of seven species were corrected. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV

    Strain Typing of Classical Scrapie and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) by Using Ovine PrP (ARQ/ARQ) Overexpressing Transgenic Mice

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    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), caused by abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), affect many species. The most classical scrapie isolates harbor mixtures of strains in different proportions. While the characterization of isolates has evolved from using wild-type mice to transgenic mice, no standardization is established yet. Here, we investigated the incubation period, lesion profile and PrPSc profile induced by well-defined sheep scrapie isolates, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and ovine BSE after intracerebral inoculation into two lines of ovine PrP (both ARQ/ARQ) overexpressing transgenic mice (Tgshp IX and Tgshp XI). All isolates were transmitted to both mouse models with an attack rate of almost 100%, but genotype-dependent differences became obvious between the ARQ and VRQ isolates. Surprisingly, BSE induced a much longer incubation period in Tgshp XI compared to Tgshp IX. In contrast to the histopathological lesion profiles, the immunohistochemical PrPSc profiles revealed discriminating patterns in certain brain regions in both models with clear differentiation of both BSE isolates from scrapie. These data provide the basis for the use of Tgshp IX and XI mice in the characterization of TSE isolates. Furthermore, the results enable a deeper appreciation of TSE strain diversity using ovine PrP overexpressing transgenic mice as a biological prion strain typing approach
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