75 research outputs found

    Fermented Milk Produced with Goat Milk Enriched with PUFA Omega-3 by Supplementation of Diet with Extruded Linseed

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    This research aimed to evaluate goat milk rich in Omega-3 PUFA from animals fed extruded flaxseed as a raw material to produce fermented milk using beneficial lactobacilli. Experimental fermented milks were produced using Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Shirota and two potential probiotic lactobacilli, namely Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus A2 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei FS109. The fermented milks were produced using milk from goats fed a basal diet without any supplementation (CON) and milk from goats supplemented with 200 g/d of extruded linseed (LIN). All lactobacilli tested grew well both in CON and LIN milk, reaching high numbers during fermentation. The colony count ranged between 8 and 10 Log CFU/mL, despite slow acidification activity, which occurred especially in milk fermented by L. FS109. By contrast, an undesired post-acidification occurred, more pronounced in CON than in LIN milk, which still highlighted the strong acid-tolerance of L. Shirota and L. rhamnosus A2 in particular. This research showed that goat milk enriched in PUFA had no negative effect on the viability of the tested Lactobacilli. Both values of L. Shirota and L. rhamnosus “live cells” throughout the cold storage of the products were higher than those recommended to guarantee the quality of fermented milk products, making them beneficial to consumers’ health

    UHPLC-QTOF/MS Untargeted Lipidomics and Caffeine Carry-Over in Milk of Goats under Spent Coffee Ground Enriched Diet

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    Supplementing the diet of ruminants with agro-industrial by-products is a common practice. In this study, we applied an untargeted lipidomics approach to study the changes in the milk lipid metabolite profiles linked to the addition of different doses of spent coffee grounds (SCG) to the diet of lactating goats. The carryover of caffeine from feed to milk was also studied. Compared to controls, the milk of goats on the SCG diet showed higher levels of cholesteryl esters, sphingomyelins, and phospholipids, while nonesterified fatty acids were downregulated. After 12 h from the last SCG dose, the carry-over of caffeine was, on average, 3%. Collectively, our results establish that SCG supplementation induces changes in the milk levels of complex lipid molecules and causes the transfer of caffeine and caffeine metabolites from feed to milk

    Linseed supplementation during uterine and early post-natal life markedly affects fatty acid profiles of brain, liver and muscle of lambs

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    This study investigated the effects of maternal linseed supplementation during gestation and lactation on muscle, brain and liver tissues composition and fatty acid (FA) profile in lambs. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, a total of 36 Sarda dairy ewes were fed a control diet (CON, n = 18) or a diet containing linseed (LIN, n = 18) during the last 8 weeks of gestation. After lambing, 9 ewes per group changed to the other diet, moving from CON to LIN and vice-versa. The single-born lambs (n = 36) were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered at 4 weeks of age and samples of muscle, brain, and liver tissues were collected. Data were analysed with a general linear model to test the effects of mothers’ gestation and lactation diets, their interaction and the effect of lamb sex. Experimental results evidenced that lambs from mothers fed LIN diet during lactation had a greater content of almost all C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, both in muscle (P < .01) and in the liver (P < .05), than those from mothers fed CON. Linseed supplementation during gestation generally increased the content of C22:5n3 (P < .01) and C22:6n3 in the brain. In conclusion, experimental results evidenced that the supplementation of ewes’ diet with linseed during lactation strongly affected the muscle and liver FA profile of lambs. The effect of linseed was effective also during gestation, especially on brain tissue, but to a minor extent.Highlights Results of the present work confirm the large impact of maternal diet on the fatty acid composition of lamb tissues Linseed supplementation during gestation generally increased the content of PUFA n3 in the brain of lambs Linseed supplementation of mothers during lactation affects the muscle and liver FA profile of sucking lamb

    Effect of extruded linseed on sarda donkey milk quality

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    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of extruded linseed in donkey diet on milk yield, milk composition and milk fatty acids (FA) profile. Eight Sarda donkeys were allocated to two groups homogenous for milk yield (0.354 ± 124 kg/d), days in milking (123 ± 41 d), and body weight (110 ± 15 kg). The first group was fed a control diet (CON), while the second group was fed the control diet supplemented with 100 g/day per head of extruded linseed (ELS). The trial lasted 7 weeks, with 2 weeks of adaptation and 5 weeks of experimentation. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the diet, sampling time and their interaction as fixed effects and animals as random effect. Milk yield and milk chemical composition were not affected by the diet. The diet led to some variations of FA profile. Long-chain FA, unsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA were higher in ELS compared to control group. These results reflected the trend of some individual FA, in particular the concentration of alpha-linolenic acid. This FA was affected by diet, sampling time and their interaction and, at the end of the trial, the average value was double in ELS than CON. Dietary linseed reduced thrombogenic and atherogenic indices and increased hypo-to hypercholesterolemic ratio of milk. In conclusion, extruded linseed can be used in donkey diet to improve the milk FA profile, in terms of polyunsaturated FA and nutritional indices, which could have a positive impact on human health.Highlights The valorisation of donkey milk could be a good strategy to preserve donkey native breed. Extruded linseed, rich in alfa-linolenic acid, improves fatty acid profile of donkey milk, increasing PUFA and decreasing SFA. Linseed supplementation affects positively milk nutritional indices

    Comparison of Milk Odd- and Branched-Chain Fatty Acids among Human, Dairy Species and Artificial Substitutes

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    The aim of the study was to compare odd and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) of milk from sheep, goat, cow, buffalo, donkey, human, and formula milk. Ruminant, monogastric, and human milks have different concentrations of these fatty acids (FA). To highlight the differences on OBCFA, a total of 282 individual milk samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The OBCFA were found higher in ruminant than non-ruminant milks (p &lt; 0.05). Among ruminants, sheep milk had the highest OBCFA (4.5 g/100 g of total FAME), whereases the lowest values were found in formula milk (0.18 g/100 g of total FAME). Regarding individual linear odd-chain FA (linear-OCFA), C11:0 was found higher in donkey milk than others, while sheep and buffalo milks had the greatest concentration of C15:0. Among BCFA, the iso-BCFA were higher than anteiso-BCFA in all considered milks. The isoC17:0 showed the highest concentration in all milks except for donkey and buffalo, which showed higher concentration of isoC16:0 than others. In conclusion, ruminant milks are different in terms of these FA compared to human milk and its substitutes. However, the greatest differences were found with formula milk, suggesting that this product needs the implementation of these FA to be more similar to human milk composition

    Effects of Commercially Available Antioxidant-Enriched Fish- and Chicken-Based Diets on Biochemical Parameters and Blood Fatty Acid Profile of Old Dogs

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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two commercially available fish- (FH) and chicken (CH)-based diets and the same diets combined with antioxidant compounds, e.g., FH-AOX and CH-AOX, respectively, on biochemical parameters and blood fatty acid (FA) profile. For this purpose, 28 dogs were allocated to four groups and fed the four diets for six months. Blood samples were taken before starting the experimental period and at the end of the trial. Concerning the biochemical parameters, the animals fed CH-AOX reached the highest values for ALB compared to the animals fed CH or FH-AOX; however, the values were within the reference values for old dogs. Triglycerides and urea were significantly higher in FH compared to the CH diet; however, both FH-AOX and CH-AOX showed a marked decrease in the TRI and urea concentration with respect to FH and CH. Moreover, CH-AOX and FH-AOX increased glucose values, linoleic acid content, and polyunsaturated FA n-3 with respect to FH and CH. On the contrary, arachidonic acid was lower in the CH-AOX and FH-AOX groups. In conclusion, FH led to a better FA profile than that of the CH diet, while CH-AOX and FH-AOX improved the FA profile regardless of the basal diet

    Cocoa husks fed to lactating dairy ewes affect milk fatty acid profile and oxidative status of blood and milk

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    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks (CH) containing theobromine on milk fatty acids (FA) and on milk and blood oxidative status in dairy ewes. The experiment was carried out with 24 dairy ewes and it lasted 8 weeks with 3 weeks of adaptation period and 5 weeks of experimental period. Animals were divided in three homogeneous groups and all ewes were fed with the same basal diet, composed of a total mix ration (TMR). The first group (CON) was fed with the TMR and a supplementation of 100 g/d per head of soybean hulls, while the second (CH50) and the third groups (CH100) were fed with the TMR and a supplementation of 50 and 100 g/d per head of CH, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GSTS), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while milk samples were analyzed for SOD, GR and lactoperoxidase (LPO). Total antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and milk samples were determined. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts (linear and quadratic) were used to investigate the effect of the diet on the variables. The C16:0 and MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) decreased, whereas C18:0 and LCFA (long-chain fatty acids) increased quadratically with the dose of CH. The supplementation of CH decreased linearly the OBCFA (branched-chain fatty acid). Regarding antioxidant results, mean protein carbonyls (PC) decreased linearly and SOD activity tended to increase linearly in blood with increasing CH dose. Meanwhile, antioxidant analysis of milk samples showed that CH supplementation increased quadratically the LPO and tended to decrease quadratically the malondialdehyde level (MDA). In conclusion, the addition of CH as supplement to the diet of ewes could modify the milk FA profile and could improve antioxidant capacity of blood and milk

    Effect of Suckling Management and Ewe Concentrate Level on Methane-Related Carbon Footprint of Lamb Meat in Sardinian Dairy Sheep Farming

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    The aim of this study was to estimate the methane-linked carbon footprint (CF) of the suckling lamb meat of Mediterranean dairy sheep. Ninety-six Sarda dairy ewes, divided into four groups of 24 animals each, were assigned to 2 &times; 2 factorial design. The experiment included the suckling lamb feeding system: traditional (TS), in which lambs followed their mothers on pasture during grazing time, vs. separated (SS), in which lambs remained indoors, separated from their mothers during the grazing time. Each group was divided into high (HS) and low (LS) supplemented ewes (600 g/d vs. 200 g/d of concentrate). The estimated CH4 emission of the ewes, calculated per kg of body weight (BW) gain of the lamb during the suckling period, was then converted to CO2eq with multiplying factor of 25. The TS lambs showed lower methane-linked emissions than SS ones (p &lt; 0.05). The sex of lambs affected their methane-linked CF, with males having lower (p &lt; 0.05) values than females. Twins displayed much lower methane-linked CF than singles (4.56 vs. 7.30 kg of CO2eq per kg of BW gained), whereas the level of supplementation did not affect greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. Interaction displayed lower and not-different GHG emissions for both indoor- and outdoor-reared twins. In conclusion, the methane-linked CF of the suckling lamb meat can be reduced by maintaining the traditional lamb rearing system and by improving flock prolificacy

    The milk fingerprint of Sardinian dairy sheep: quality and yield of milk used for Pecorino Romano P.D.O. cheese production on population-based 5-year survey

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    The Pecorino Romano P.D.O. is the main sheep cheese produced in Italy and the first one among the sheep cheeses, in terms of quality and value, exported from the European Union. About half of the sheep milk produced in Italy is processed into this type of cheese by 36 dairies belonging to the Pecorino Romano Consortium. Eight million records of biweekly analyses of milk collected within a 5-year period from farms delivering their milk to the aforementioned consortium were analysed in this work. Monthly evolution curves were plotted for fat, protein, lactose, pH, NaCl, SCC, bacterial load and principal fatty acids (FAs). Due to the seasonal production systems of Sardinian sheep, monthly evolution of milk fat and protein contents and cheese yield are directly linked to the lactation curve pattern and the pastures quantity and quality. Also, the FA profile of milk is affected by grass availability and quality in both early and mid-lactation, whereas it is influenced by the energy balance of ewes in late lactation. Cheese yield equation was computed based on fat and protein contents and considering the variability among dairies in technological processes used in transforming Sarda sheep milk to Pecorino Romano P.D.O. These data could be a relevant basis to set-up future grids of milk payments based on quality standards. Moreover, they could be useful to formulate administrative policies on the dairy sector with the prospective to improve milk quality of Sardinian sheep destined to the Pecorino Romano production.Highlights The yield of Pecorino Romano P.D.O. (PR) is linked to fat and protein content of milk and it depends on the industrial processes adopted by each dairy Monthly variation of milk composition is of high interest for the PR producers to program the output of their milk-processing plans The content and monthly evolutions of principal fatty acids are important to determine the nutritional and technological properties of P
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