146 research outputs found

    Image_1_Myeloid cell-derived catecholamines influence bone turnover and regeneration in mice.jpeg

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    Catecholamine signaling is known to influence bone tissue as reuptake of norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves into bone cells declines with age leading to osteoporosis. Further, β-adrenoceptor-blockers like propranolol provoke osteoprotective effects in osteoporotic patients. However, besides systemic adrenal and sympathetic catecholamine production, it is also known that myeloid cells can synthesize catecholamines, especially under inflammatory conditions. To investigate the effects of catecholamines produced by CD11b+ myeloid cells on bone turnover and regeneration, a mouse line with specific knockout of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine synthesis, in CD11b+ myeloid cells (THflox/flox/CD11b-Cre+, referred to as THCD11b-Cre) was generated. For bone phenotyping, male mice were sacrificed at eight and twelve weeks of age and harvested bones were subjected to bone length measurement, micro-computed tomography, fluorescence-activated cell sorting of the bone marrow, gene expression analysis, histology and immunohistochemistry. Support for an age-dependent influence of myeloid cell-derived catecholamines on bone homeostasis is provided by the fact that twelve-week-old, but not eight-week-old THCD11b-Cre mice, developed an osteopenic phenotype and showed increased numbers of neutrophils and T lymphocytes in the bone marrow, while CCL2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression was reduced in sorted myeloid bone marrow cells. To investigate the influence of myeloid cell-derived catecholamines on fracture healing, mice received a diaphyseal femur osteotomy. Three days post-fracture, immunohistochemistry revealed an increased number of macrophages, neutrophils and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the fracture hematoma of THCD11b-Cre mice. Micro-computed tomography on day 21 showed a decreased tissue mineral density, a reduced bone volume and less trabeculae in the fracture callus indicating delayed fracture healing, probably due to the increased presence of inflammatory cells in THCD11b-Cre mice. This indicates a crucial role of myeloid cell-derived catecholamines in immune cell-bone cell crosstalk and during fracture healing.</p

    Image_2_Myeloid cell-derived catecholamines influence bone turnover and regeneration in mice.jpeg

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    Catecholamine signaling is known to influence bone tissue as reuptake of norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves into bone cells declines with age leading to osteoporosis. Further, β-adrenoceptor-blockers like propranolol provoke osteoprotective effects in osteoporotic patients. However, besides systemic adrenal and sympathetic catecholamine production, it is also known that myeloid cells can synthesize catecholamines, especially under inflammatory conditions. To investigate the effects of catecholamines produced by CD11b+ myeloid cells on bone turnover and regeneration, a mouse line with specific knockout of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine synthesis, in CD11b+ myeloid cells (THflox/flox/CD11b-Cre+, referred to as THCD11b-Cre) was generated. For bone phenotyping, male mice were sacrificed at eight and twelve weeks of age and harvested bones were subjected to bone length measurement, micro-computed tomography, fluorescence-activated cell sorting of the bone marrow, gene expression analysis, histology and immunohistochemistry. Support for an age-dependent influence of myeloid cell-derived catecholamines on bone homeostasis is provided by the fact that twelve-week-old, but not eight-week-old THCD11b-Cre mice, developed an osteopenic phenotype and showed increased numbers of neutrophils and T lymphocytes in the bone marrow, while CCL2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression was reduced in sorted myeloid bone marrow cells. To investigate the influence of myeloid cell-derived catecholamines on fracture healing, mice received a diaphyseal femur osteotomy. Three days post-fracture, immunohistochemistry revealed an increased number of macrophages, neutrophils and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the fracture hematoma of THCD11b-Cre mice. Micro-computed tomography on day 21 showed a decreased tissue mineral density, a reduced bone volume and less trabeculae in the fracture callus indicating delayed fracture healing, probably due to the increased presence of inflammatory cells in THCD11b-Cre mice. This indicates a crucial role of myeloid cell-derived catecholamines in immune cell-bone cell crosstalk and during fracture healing.</p

    Intramembranous bone formation after callus distraction is augmented by increasing axial compressive strain - Fig 4

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    <p><b>a-d. Bone structural parameter data.</b> The bone structural parameter data from μCT analysis shows differences of relative bone volume (BV/TV, *<i>p</i> = 0.03; Fig 4A), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th., **<i>p</i> = 0.006; Fig 4B), trabecular number (Tb.N.; Fig 4C) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.; Fig 4D).</p

    Simulating lateral distraction osteogenesis

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    <div><p>Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone <i>in situ</i> for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled <i>in vivo</i> experiment. This model extends an existing numerical model of callus healing with viscoplastic material properties for describing stress relaxation and stimuli history-dependent tissue differentiation, incorporating delay and memory effects. A reformulation of appositional growth based non-local biological stimuli in terms of spatial convolution as well as remeshing and solution-mapping procedures allow the model to cope with severe mesh distortions associated with large plastic deformations. With these enhancements, our model is capable of replicating the <i>in vivo</i> observations for lateral distraction osteogenesis in sheep using the same differentiation rules and the same set of parameters that successfully describes callus healing in sheep, indicating that tissue differentiation hypotheses originally developed for fracture healing scenarios might indeed be applicable to distraction as well. The response of the model to modified distraction parameters corresponds to existing studies, although the currently available data is insufficient for rigorous validation. As such, this study provides a first step towards developing models that can serve as tools for identifying both interesting research questions and, eventually, even optimizing clinical procedures once better data for calibration and validation becomes available.</p></div

    Novel systems for the application of isolated tensile, compressive, and shearing stimulation of distraction callus tissue

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Distraction osteogenesis is a procedure widely used for the correction of large bone defects. However, a high complication rate persists, likely due to insufficient stability during maturation. Numerical fracture healing models predict bone regeneration under different mechanical conditions allowing fixation stiffness optimization. However, most models apply a linear elastic material law inappropriate for the transient stresses/strains present during limb lengthening or segment transport. They are also often validated using <i>in vivo</i> osteotomy models lacking precise mechanical regulation due to the unavoidable stimulation of secondary interfragmentary motion during ambulation under finitely stiff fixation. Therefore, in order to create a robust numerical model of distraction osteogenesis, it is necessary to both characterize the new tissue’s viscoelasticity during distraction and determine the influence of strictly isolated stimulation in each loading mode (tension, compression, and shear) to account for potential differences in mechanical and histological response.</p><p>Aim</p><p>Two electromechanical fixators with integrated load cells were designed to precisely perform and monitor <i>in vivo</i> lateral distraction and isolated stimulation in sheep tibiae using a mobile, hydroxyapatite-coated titanium plate. The novel surgical procedure circumvents osteotomy, eliminating the undesirable and unquantifiable mechanical stimulation during ambulation.</p><p>Methods</p><p>After a 10-day post-surgery latency period, two 0.275 mm distraction steps were performed daily for 10 days. The load cell collected data before, during, and after each distraction step and was terminated after no less than one minute from the time of distraction. A 7-day consolidation period separated the distraction phase and 18-day stimulation phase. Stimulation was carried out in isolated tension, compression, or shear while recording force/time data. Each stimulation session consisted of 120 cycles with a magnitude of either 0.1 mm or 0.6 mm in the tension and compression groups and 1.0 mm in the shear group. The animals were euthanized after a 3-day holding period following stimulation.</p><p>Results</p><p>Our initial results show that the tissue progressively stiffens and maintains an increasingly large residual traction. The force curves during compressive stimulation show a progressive drift from compression toward tension. We hypothesize that this behavior may be due to the preferential flow of fluid outward from the tissue and a greater resistance to reabsorption during the plate’s return to the starting position.</p></div

    Exposure to 100% Oxygen Abolishes the Impairment of Fracture Healing after Thoracic Trauma

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    <div><p>In polytrauma patients a thoracic trauma is one of the most critical injuries and an important trigger of post-traumatic inflammation. About 50% of patients with thoracic trauma are additionally affected by bone fractures. The risk for fracture malunion is considerably increased in such patients, the pathomechanisms being poorly understood. Thoracic trauma causes regional alveolar hypoxia and, subsequently, hypoxemia, which in turn triggers local and systemic inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to unravel the role of oxygen in impaired bone regeneration after thoracic trauma. We hypothesized that short-term breathing of 100% oxygen in the early post-traumatic phase ameliorates inflammation and improves bone regeneration. Mice underwent a femur osteotomy alone or combined with blunt chest trauma 100% oxygen was administered immediately after trauma for two separate 3 hour intervals. Arterial blood gas tensions, microcirculatory perfusion and oxygenation were assessed at 3, 9 and 24 hours after injury. Inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress were measured in plasma, lung and fracture hematoma. Bone healing was assessed on day 7, 14 and 21. Thoracic trauma induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation and impaired bone healing. Short-term exposure to 100% oxygen in the acute post-traumatic phase significantly attenuated systemic and local inflammatory responses and improved fracture healing without provoking toxic side effects, suggesting that hyperoxia could induce anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects after severe injury. These results suggest that breathing of 100% oxygen in the acute post-traumatic phase might reduce the risk of poorly healing fractures in severely injured patients.</p></div

    Cytokine/chemokine concentrations in lung homogenates.

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    <p>Data represent medians and quartiles. Specimen numbers for each group are depicted.</p><p>*p < 0.05 and</p><p>**p < 0.01 vs F</p><p>#p < 0.05 vs. F+TXT.</p><p>Cytokine/chemokine concentrations in lung homogenates.</p

    Prediction of the Time Course of Callus Stiffness as a Function of Mechanical Parameters in Experimental Rat Fracture Healing Studies - A Numerical Study

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    <div><p>Numerous experimental fracture healing studies are performed on rats, in which different experimental, mechanical parameters are applied, thereby prohibiting direct comparison between each other. Numerical fracture healing simulation models are able to predict courses of fracture healing and offer support for pre-planning animal experiments and for post-hoc comparison between outcomes of different <i>in vivo</i> studies. The aims of this study are to adapt a pre-existing fracture healing simulation algorithm for sheep and humans to the rat, to corroborate it using the data of numerous different rat experiments, and to provide healing predictions for future rat experiments. First, material properties of different tissue types involved were adjusted by comparing experimentally measured callus stiffness to respective simulated values obtained in three finite element (FE) models. This yielded values for Young’s moduli of cortical bone, woven bone, cartilage, and connective tissue of 15,750 MPa, 1,000 MPa, 5 MPa, and 1 MPa, respectively. Next, thresholds in the underlying mechanoregulatory tissue differentiation rules were calibrated by modifying model parameters so that predicted fracture callus stiffness matched experimental data from a study that used rigid and flexible fixators. This resulted in strain thresholds at higher magnitudes than in models for sheep and humans. The resulting numerical model was then used to simulate numerous fracture healing scenarios from literature, showing a considerable mismatch in only 6 of 21 cases. Based on this corroborated model, a fit curve function was derived which predicts the increase of callus stiffness dependent on bodyweight, fixation stiffness, and fracture gap size. By mathematically predicting the time course of the healing process prior to the animal studies, the data presented in this work provides support for planning new fracture healing experiments in rats. Furthermore, it allows one to transfer and compare new <i>in vivo</i> findings to previously performed studies with differing mechanical parameters.</p></div

    GMP-Compliant Isolation and Large-Scale Expansion of Bone Marrow-Derived MSC

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    <div><h3>Background</h3><p>Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have gained importance in tissue repair, tissue engineering and in immunosupressive therapy during the last years. Due to the limited availability of MSC in the bone marrow, <em>ex vivo</em> amplification prior to clinical application is requisite to obtain therapeutic applicable cell doses. Translation of preclinical into clinical-grade large-scale MSC expansion necessitates precise definition and standardization of all procedural parameters including cell seeding density, culture medium and cultivation devices. While xenogeneic additives such as fetal calf serum are still widely used for cell culture, its use in the clinical context is associated with many risks, such as prion and viral transmission or adverse immunological reactions against xenogeneic components.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We established animal-free expansion protocols using platelet lysate as medium supplement and thereby could confirm its safety and feasibility for large-scale MSC isolation and expansion. Five different GMP-compliant standardized protocols designed for the safe, reliable, efficient and economical isolation and expansion of MSC was performed and MSC obtained were analyzed for differentiation capacity by qPCR and histochemistry. Expression of standard MSC markers as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy as well as expression of additional MSC markers and of various chemokine and cytokine receptors was analysed by flow cytometry. Changes of metabolic markers and cytokines in the medium were addressed using the LUMINEX platform.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The five different systems for isolation and expansion of MSC described in this study are all suitable to produce at least 100 millions of MSC, which is commonly regarded as a single clinical dose. Final products are equal according to the minimal criteria for MSC defined by the ISCT. We showed that chemokine and integrin receptors analyzed had the same expression pattern, suggesting that MSC from either of the systems show equal characteristics of homing and adhesion.</p> </div

    <i>Ex vivo</i> analysis of osteoblast and osteoclast function.

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    <p>Osteogenic differentiated primary osteoblasts from Balb/c (A, C) and NOD/scid-IL2Rγ<sub>c</sub><sup>null</sup> mice (NSG; B, D) were stained for alkaline phosphatase activity (A, B) and mineral deposition (C, D) using von-Kossa-stain, respectively. Osteoclast-like (OCL) cell fusion from mononuclear cells was analysed using tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-staining (E, F, I). The resorption activity of the OCL was analysed on calcium-phosphate-coated discs. (G, H, J). Data is depicted as the mean ± standard error of the mean. I: n = 4; J: n = 7. Scale bar in A–D = 100 μm.</p
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