599 research outputs found

    Table1_Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) produces lasting, sex-specific changes in rat body fat independent of changes in white blood cell composition.DOCX

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    Early initiation of alcohol use during adolescence, and adolescent binge drinking are risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder later in life. Adolescence is a time of rapid sex-dependent neural, physiological, and behavioral changes as well as a period of heightened vulnerability to many effects of alcohol. The goal of the present studies was to determine age-related changes in blood (leukocyte populations) and body composition across adolescence and early adulthood, and to investigate whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure would alter the trajectory of adolescent development on these broad physiological parameters. We observed significant ontogenetic changes in leukocyte populations that were mirrored by an age-related increase in cytokine expression among mixed populations of circulating leukocytes. Despite these developmental changes, AIE did not significantly alter overall leukocyte numbers or cytokine gene expression. However, AIE led to sex-specific changes in body fat mass and fat percentage, with AIE-exposed male rats showing significantly decreased fat levels and female rats showing significantly increased fat levels relative to controls. These changes suggest that while AIE may not alter overall leukocyte levels, more complex phenotypic changes in leukocyte populations could underlie previously reported differences in cytokine expression. Coupled with long-term shifts in adipocyte levels, this could have long-lasting effects on innate immunity and the capacity of individuals to respond to later immunological and physiological threats.</p

    Presentation1_Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) produces lasting, sex-specific changes in rat body fat independent of changes in white blood cell composition.PPTX

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    Early initiation of alcohol use during adolescence, and adolescent binge drinking are risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder later in life. Adolescence is a time of rapid sex-dependent neural, physiological, and behavioral changes as well as a period of heightened vulnerability to many effects of alcohol. The goal of the present studies was to determine age-related changes in blood (leukocyte populations) and body composition across adolescence and early adulthood, and to investigate whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure would alter the trajectory of adolescent development on these broad physiological parameters. We observed significant ontogenetic changes in leukocyte populations that were mirrored by an age-related increase in cytokine expression among mixed populations of circulating leukocytes. Despite these developmental changes, AIE did not significantly alter overall leukocyte numbers or cytokine gene expression. However, AIE led to sex-specific changes in body fat mass and fat percentage, with AIE-exposed male rats showing significantly decreased fat levels and female rats showing significantly increased fat levels relative to controls. These changes suggest that while AIE may not alter overall leukocyte levels, more complex phenotypic changes in leukocyte populations could underlie previously reported differences in cytokine expression. Coupled with long-term shifts in adipocyte levels, this could have long-lasting effects on innate immunity and the capacity of individuals to respond to later immunological and physiological threats.</p

    Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) produces lasting, sex-specific changes in rat body fat independent of changes in white blood cell composition

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    Early initiation of alcohol use during adolescence, and adolescent binge drinking are risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder later in life. Adolescence is a time of rapid sex-dependent neural, physiological, and behavioral changes as well as a period of heightened vulnerability to many effects of alcohol. The goal of the present studies was to determine age-related changes in blood (leukocyte populations) and body composition across adolescence and early adulthood, and to investigate whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure would alter the trajectory of adolescent development on these broad physiological parameters. We observed significant ontogenetic changes in leukocyte populations that were mirrored by an age-related increase in cytokine expression among mixed populations of circulating leukocytes. Despite these developmental changes, AIE did not significantly alter overall leukocyte numbers or cytokine gene expression. However, AIE led to sex-specific changes in body fat mass and fat percentage, with AIE-exposed male rats showing significantly decreased fat levels and female rats showing significantly increased fat levels relative to controls. These changes suggest that while AIE may not alter overall leukocyte levels, more complex phenotypic changes in leukocyte populations could underlie previously reported differences in cytokine expression. Coupled with long-term shifts in adipocyte levels, this could have long-lasting effects on innate immunity and the capacity of individuals to respond to later immunological and physiological threats

    Rationale and Design of the Randomized Bayesian Multicenter COME-TAVI Trial in Patients With a New Onset Left Bundle Branch Block

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    Patients with new-onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are at risk of developing delayed high-degree atrioventricular block. Management of new-onset LBBB post-TAVI remains controversial. In the Comparison of a Clinical Monitoring Strategy Versus Electrophysiology-Guided Algorithmic Approach in Patients With a New LBBB After TAVI (COME-TAVI) trial, consenting patients with new-onset LBBB that persists on day 2 after TAVI, meeting exclusion/inclusion criteria, are randomized to an electrophysiological study (EPS)-guided approach or 30-day electrocardiographic monitoring. In the EPS-guided approach, patients with a His to ventricle (HV) interval ≥ 65 ms undergo permanent pacemaker implantation. Patients randomized to noninvasive monitoring receive a wearable continuous electrocardiographic recording and transmitting device for 30 days. Follow-up will be performed at 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a composite outcome designed to capture net clinical benefit. The endpoint incorporates major consequences of both strategies in patients with new-onset LBBB after TAVI, as follows: (i) sudden cardiac death; (ii) syncope; (iii) atrioventricular conduction disorder requiring a pacemaker (for a class I or IIa indication); and (iv) complications related to the pacemaker or EPS. The trial incorporates a Bayesian design with a noninformative prior, outcome-adaptive randomization (initially 1:1), and 2 prespecified interim analyses once 25% and 50% of the anticipated number of primary endpoints are reached. The trial is event-driven, with an anticipated upper limit of 452 patients required to reach 77 primary outcome events over 12 months of follow-up. In summary, the aim of this Bayesian multicentre randomized trial is to compare 2 management strategies in patients with new-onset LBBB post-TAVI—an EPS-guided approach vs noninvasive 30-day monitoring. Trial registration number: NCT03303612. Résumé: Les patients chez qui un bloc de branche gauche (BBG) est récemment apparu à la suite de l’implantation valvulaire aortique par cathéter (IVAC) présentent un risque de bloc auriculoventriculaire de haut degré tardif. La prise en charge d’un BBG récemment apparu après une IVAC demeure controversée. Dans le cadre de l’essai COME-TAVI (Comparison of a Clinical Monitoring Strategy Versus Electrophysiology-Guided Algorithmic Approach in Patients With a New LBBB After TAVI, ou comparaison d’une stratégie de surveillance clinique, par rapport à une approche guidée par étude électrophysiologique et fondée sur un algorithme, chez des patients présentant un BBG d’apparition récente à la suite d’une IVAC), des patients qui présentent un BBG d’apparition récente persistant le 2e jour après une IVAC, qui répondent aux critères d’admissibilité et qui ont donné leur consentement sont répartis aléatoirement pour être suivis à l’aide d’une approche guidée par une étude électrophysiologique (EEP) ou faire l’objet d’une surveillance électrocardiographique d’une durée de 30 jours. Un stimulateur cardiaque est implanté chez les patients du groupe de l’EEP dont l’intervalle HV (temps de conduction dans le tronc du faisceau de His jusqu’aux ventricules) est ≥ 65 ms. Les patients du groupe de surveillance non invasive reçoivent un dispositif portable d’enregistrement et de transmission continue de données électrocardiographiques pour une période de 30 jours. Le suivi sera réalisé aux 3e, 6e et 12e mois. Le critère d’évaluation principal est un paramètre composite conçu afin de saisir le bienfait clinique net. Il comprend les conséquences majeures des deux stratégies chez les patients présentant un BBG d’apparition récente après une IVAC, comme suit : (i) mort subite d’origine cardiaque; (ii) syncope; (iii) trouble de la conduction auriculoventriculaire nécessitant la pose d’un stimulateur cardiaque (pour une indication de classe I ou IIa); et (iv) complications relatives au stimulateur cardiaque ou à l’EEP. L’essai intègre une conception bayésienne avec une répartition aléatoire (dans un rapport initial de 1:1) antérieure non informative adaptée aux résultats et deux analyses intermédiaires définies au préalable lorsque 25 % et 50 % du nombre anticipé des critères d’évaluation principaux seront atteints. L’essai est axé sur les événements, et la limite supérieure anticipée pour atteindre 77 événements relatifs aux critères d’évaluation principaux sur 12 mois de suivi est de 452 patients. En résumé, l’objectif de cet essai bayésien multicentrique à répartition aléatoire est de comparer deux stratégies de prise en charge de patients présentant un BBG d’apparition récente après une IVAC, soit une approche guidée par une EEP, par rapport à une surveillance non invasive de 30 jours. Trial registration number: NCT03303612

    Time for a paradigm shift in shared decision-making in trauma and emergency surgery? Results from an international survey

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    Background Shared decision-making (SDM) between clinicians and patients is one of the pillars of the modern patient-centric philosophy of care. This study aims to explore SDM in the discipline of trauma and emergency surgery, investigating its interpretation as well as the barriers and facilitators for its implementation among surgeons. Methods Grounding on the literature on the topics of the understanding, barriers, and facilitators of SDM in trauma and emergency surgery, a survey was created by a multidisciplinary committee and endorsed by the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES). The survey was sent to all 917 WSES members, advertised through the society’s website, and shared on the society’s Twitter profile. Results A total of 650 trauma and emergency surgeons from 71 countries in five continents participated in the initiative. Less than half of the surgeons understood SDM, and 30% still saw the value in exclusively engaging multidisciplinary provider teams without involving the patient. Several barriers to effectively partnering with the patient in the decision-making process were identified, such as the lack of time and the need to concentrate on making medical teams work smoothly. Discussion Our investigation underlines how only a minority of trauma and emergency surgeons understand SDM, and perhaps, the value of SDM is not fully accepted in trauma and emergency situations. The inclusion of SDM practices in clinical guidelines may represent the most feasible and advocated solutions

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

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    IMPORTANCE Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non–critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was organ support–free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support–free days among critically ill patients was 10 (–1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (–1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support–free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0273570

    The genetic basis of endometriosis and comorbidity with other pain and inflammatory conditions

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    Endometriosis is a common condition associated with debilitating pelvic pain and infertility. A genome-wide association study meta-analysis, including 60,674 cases and 701,926 controls of European and East Asian descent, identified 42 genome-wide significant loci comprising 49 distinct association signals. Effect sizes were largest for stage 3/4 disease, driven by ovarian endometriosis. Identified signals explained up to 5.01% of disease variance and regulated expression or methylation of genes in endometrium and blood, many of which were associated with pain perception/maintenance (SRP14/BMF, GDAP1, MLLT10, BSN and NGF). We observed significant genetic correlations between endometriosis and 11 pain conditions, including migraine, back and multisite chronic pain (MCP), as well as inflammatory conditions, including asthma and osteoarthritis. Multitrait genetic analyses identified substantial sharing of variants associated with endometriosis and MCP/migraine. Targeted investigations of genetically regulated mechanisms shared between endometriosis and other pain conditions are needed to aid the development of new treatments and facilitate early symptomatic intervention
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