8 research outputs found

    YTX treatment induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells.

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    <p>B16F10 cells were either left untreated or were treated for indicated times with 10, 30, 50 and 100nM YTX. YTX solvent controls were performed and no effects were observed. Cells were then analyzed for Annexin-V and PI staining by flow cytometry and the percentage of live cells (Annexin V-FITC -/PI -), early apoptotic (Annexin V-FITC +/PI -) and late apoptotic or necrotic cells (Annexin V-FITC +/PI +) was determined. Mean ± SEM of three experiments. Significant differences between untreated and YTX-treated cells: (*) p≤0.05, (**) p≤0.01 and (***) p≤0.001.</p

    YTX treatment induced apoptosis and necrosis in the RBL-2H3 cell line.

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    <p>RBL-2H3 cells were either left untreated or were treated for indicated times with 10, 30, 50 and 100nM YTX. YTX solvent controls were performed and no effects were observed. Cells were then analysed for Annexin V-FITC and PI staining by flow cytometry and the percentage of live cells (Annexin V-FITC -/ PI -), early apoptotic (Annexin V-FITC +/PI -) and late apoptotic or necrotic cells (Annexin V-FITC +/PI +) was determined. Data are the mean ± SEM of three experiments. Significant differences between untreated and YTX-treated cells: (*) p≤0.05, (**) p≤0.01 and (***) p≤0.001.</p

    Effect of YTX on RBL-2H3 and BMMCs cell viability.

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    <p>Cells were incubated with 10, 30, 50 and 100nM YTX for the indicated times and cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. Corresponding controls with YTX solvent (methanol) were performed and cell viability was arbitrarily set to 100%. Of note, solvent did not significantly affect cell viability as compared to non-treated cells even at the highest concentration of vehicle. Data are the mean ± SEM of three experiments. Significant differences between untreated and YTX-treated cells: (*) p≤0.05, (**) p≤0.01 and (***) p≤0.001.</p

    Effect of YTX on β-hexosaminidase release induced by IgE/Ag in RBL-2H3 and BMMCs.

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    <p>IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells (A) or BMMCs (B) were incubated with 10 and 30nM YTX or vehicle (methanol) for 30 or 60min. Then YTX was removed (+) from the medium or not (-) and cells were stimulated for 45min with DNP-HSA antigen at the indicated concentrations. The percentage release of β-hexosaminidase was determined and compared to vehicle treated cells. No effect was observed after vehicle incubation. Data (percentage release) are the mean ± SEM of three experiments. Significant differences between DNP-HSA- (hatched) and DNP-HSA+YTX-treated cells: (*) p≤0.05.</p

    Effect of YTX on MEC1 and B16F10 cell line viability.

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    <p>The MEC1 and B16F10 cell lines were incubated with 10, 30, 50 and 100nM YTX for the indicated times and cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay at the indicated time points. Corresponding controls with YTX solvent were performed and cell viability was arbitrarily set to 100%. Of note, solvent did not significantly affect cell viability as compared to non-treated cells even at the highest concentration of vehicle. Data are the mean ± SEM of three experiments. Significant differences between untreated and YTX-treated cells: (*) p≤0.05, (**) p≤0.01 and (***) p≤0.001.</p

    YTX treatment decreases tumour development in the B16F10 melanoma mouse model.

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    <p>(A) Mice were injected subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma cells and tumours were allowed to develop until they reached a volume of 50 mm<sup>3</sup> achieved between days 5 and 10. Mice were then either left untreated or were treated with the indicated concentrations of YTX or vehicle, which was injected subcutaneous right next to the tumour. (B) Representative glucose uptake after FX Pro Kodak image analysis of untreated, vehicle and YTX-treated mice at the day of sacrifice. (C) Corresponding resected tumour weight of animals after sacrifice at day 12 post-1st treatment. (D) Corresponding weight of untreated, vehicle- and YTX-treated mice. (E-G) Results of the haematological analysis performed before mice sacrifice. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Significant differences between untreated and YTX: (*) p≤0.05 and (***) p≤0.001.</p

    Gambierone, a Ladder-Shaped Polyether from the Dinoflagellate <i>Gambierdiscus belizeanus</i>

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    A new natural product named gambierone (<b>1</b>) was isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate <i>Gambierdiscus belizeanus</i>. The structure of this compound features an unprecedented polyether skeleton and an unusual right-hand side chain. Its relative configuration was fully determined by interpretation of ROESY experiment and comparison between experimental and theoretical NMR data. Although the succession of cycles has no chemical similarity with ciguatoxins, <b>1</b> has a molecular formula and biological activity similar to those of CTX-3C, although much lower in intensity

    Autumnalamide, a Prenylated Cyclic Peptide from the Cyanobacterium <i>Phormidium autumnale</i>, Acts on SH-SY5Y Cells at the Mitochondrial Level

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    Filamentous cyanobacteria of the genus <i>Phormidium</i> have been rarely studied for their chemical diversity. For the first time, the cultivable <i>Phormidium autumnale</i> was shown to produce a prenylated cyclic peptide named autumnalamide (<b>1</b>). The structure of this peptide was fully determined after a deep exploration of the spectroscopic data, including NMR and HRMS. Interestingly, a prenyl moiety was located on the guanidine end of the arginine amino acid. The absolute configurations of most amino acids were assessed using enantioselective GC/MS analysis, with <sup>13</sup>C NMR modeling being used for the determination of d-arginine and d-proline. The effects of <b>1</b> on sodium and calcium fluxes were studied in SH-SY5Y and hNav 1.6 HEK cells. When the Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx was stimulated by thapsigargin, strong inhibition was observed in the presence of <b>1</b>. As a consequence, this compound may act by disrupting the normal calcium uptake of this organelle, inducing the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which results in the indirect blockade of store-operated channels
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