1,040 research outputs found

    First Passage Distributions in a Collective Model of Anomalous Diffusion with Tunable Exponent

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    We consider a model system in which anomalous diffusion is generated by superposition of underlying linear modes with a broad range of relaxation times. In the language of Gaussian polymers, our model corresponds to Rouse (Fourier) modes whose friction coefficients scale as wavenumber to the power 2z2-z. A single (tagged) monomer then executes subdiffusion over a broad range of time scales, and its mean square displacement increases as tαt^\alpha with α=1/z\alpha=1/z. To demonstrate non-trivial aspects of the model, we numerically study the absorption of the tagged particle in one dimension near an absorbing boundary or in the interval between two such boundaries. We obtain absorption probability densities as a function of time, as well as the position-dependent distribution for unabsorbed particles, at several values of α\alpha. Each of these properties has features characterized by exponents that depend on α\alpha. Characteristic distributions found for different values of α\alpha have similar qualitative features, but are not simply related quantitatively. Comparison of the motion of translocation coordinate of a polymer moving through a pore in a membrane with the diffusing tagged monomer with identical α\alpha also reveals quantitative differences.Comment: LaTeX, 10 pages, 8 eps figure

    Strong Gravitational Lensing by Sgr A*

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    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of the galactic center as a probe of general relativity in the strong field. There is almost certainly a black hole at Sgr A* in the galactic center, and this would allow us the opportunity to probe dynamics near the exterior of the black hole. In the last decade, there has been research into extreme gravitational lensing in the galactic center. Unlike in most applications of gravitational lensing, where the bending angle is of the order of several arc seconds, very large bending angles are possible for light that closely approaches a black hole. Photons may even loop multiple times around a black hole before reaching the observer. There have been many proposals to use light's close approach to the black hole as a probe of the black hole metric. Of particular interest is the property of light lensed by the S stars orbiting in the galactic center. This paper will review some of the attempts made to study extreme lensing as well as extend the analysis of lensing by S stars. In particular, we are interested in the effect of a Reissner-Nordstrom like 1/r^2 term in the metric and how this would affect the properties of relativistic images.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures. Submitted as invited review article for the GR19 issue of CQ

    Toward a Framework For Systematic Error Modeling Of Spaceborne Precipitation Radar With Noaa/Nssl Ground Radar Based National Mosaic Qpe

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    Characterization of the error associated with satellite rainfall estimates is a necessary component of deterministic and probabilistic frameworks involving spaceborne passive and active microwave measurements for applications ranging from water budget studies to forecasting natural hazards related to extreme rainfall events. The authors focus here on the error structure of NASA\u27s Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at ground. The problem is addressed by comparison of PR QPEs with reference values derived from ground-based measurements using NOAA/NSSL ground radar based National Mosaic and QPE system (NMQ/Q2). A preliminary investigation of this subject has been carried out at the PR estimation scale (instantaneous and 5 km) using a 3-month data sample in the southern part of the United States. The primary contribution of this study is the presentation of the detailed steps required to derive a trustworthy reference rainfall dataset from Q2 at the PR pixel resolution. It relies on a bias correction and a radar quality index, both of which provide a basis to filter out the less trustworthy Q2 values. Several aspects of PR errors are revealed and quantified including sensitivity to the processing steps with the reference rainfall, comparisons of rainfall delectability and rainfall-rate distributions, spatial representativeness of error, and separation of systematic biases and random errors. The methodology and framework developed herein applies more generally to rainfall-rate estimates from other sensors on board low-earth-orbiting satellites such as microwave imagers and dual-wavelength radars such as with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission

    Thalamic inputs to dorsomedial striatum are involved in inhibitory control: evidence from the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats

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    Rationale Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. Objectives Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats. Methods The 5CSRTT requires sustained attention in order to detect spatially and temporally distributed visual cues and provides measures of inhibitory control related to impulsivity (premature responses) and compulsivity (perseverative responses). Rats underwent bilateral Pf injections of the DREADD vector, AAV2-CaMKIIa-HA-hM4D(Gi)-IRES-mCitrine. The DREADD agonist, clozapine N-oxide (CNO; 1 μl bilateral; 3 μM) or vehicle, was injected into DMS 1 h before behavioural testing. Task parameters were manipulated to increase attention load or reduce stimulus predictability respectively. Results We found that inhibition of the Pf-DMS projection significantly increased perseverative responses when stimulus predictability was reduced but had no effect on premature responses or response accuracy, even under increased attentional load. Control experiments showed no effects on locomotor activity in an open field. Conclusions These results complement previous lesion work in which the DMS and orbitofrontal cortex were similarly implicated in perseverative responses and suggest a specific role for thalamostriatal inputs in inhibitory control

    Toward a Framework for Systematic Error Modeling of NASA Spaceborne Radar with NOAA/NSSL Ground Radar-Based National Mosaic QPE

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    Characterization of the error associated to satellite rainfall estimates is a necessary component of deterministic and probabilistic frameworks involving space-born passive and active microwave measurement") for applications ranging from water budget studies to forecasting natural hazards related to extreme rainfall events. We focus here on the error structure of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at ground. The problem is addressed by comparison of PR QPEs with reference values derived from ground-based measurements using NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based National Mosaic and QPE system (NMQ/Q2). A preliminary investigation of this subject has been carried out at the PR estimation scale (instantaneous and 5 km) using a three-month data sample in the southern part of US. The primary contribution of this study is the presentation of the detailed steps required to derive trustworthy reference rainfall dataset from Q2 at the PR pixel resolution. It relics on a bias correction and a radar quality index, both of which provide a basis to filter out the less trustworthy Q2 values. Several aspects of PR errors arc revealed and quantified including sensitivity to the processing steps with the reference rainfall, comparisons of rainfall detectability and rainfall rate distributions, spatial representativeness of error, and separation of systematic biases and random errors. The methodology and framework developed herein applies more generally to rainfall rate estimates from other sensors onboard low-earth orbiting satellites such as microwave imagers and dual-wavelength radars such as with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission
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