87 research outputs found

    The effects of dual IQOS and cigarette smoke exposure on airway epithelial cells: implications for lung health and respiratory disease pathogenesis

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    Background Cigarette smoking remains a primary cause of chronic lung diseases. After a steady decline, smoking rates have recently increased especially with the introduction of newer electronic nicotine delivery devices, and it is also emerging that dual- or poly-product usage is on the rise. Additionally, with the introduction of IQOS (a heated tobacco product) globally, its impact on human health needs to be investigated. In this study we tested if dual exposure (cigarette smoke (CS)+IQOS) is detrimental to lung epithelial cells when compared with CS or IQOS exposure alone. Methods Human airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to either CS, IQOS or their dual combination (CS+IQOS) at concentrations of 0.1%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial homeostasis, mitophagy and effects on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) signalling were assessed. Results Both CS and IQOS alone significantly induced loss of cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner which was further enhanced by dual exposure compared with IQOS alone (p<0.01). Dual exposure significantly increased oxidative stress and perturbed mitochondrial homeostasis when compared with CS or IQOS alone (p<0.05). Additionally, dual exposure induced EMT signalling as shown by increased mesenchymal (α-smooth muscle actin and N-cadherin) and decreased epithelial (E-cadherin) markers when compared with CS or IQOS alone (p<0.05). Conclusion Collectively, our study demonstrates that dual CS+IQOS exposure enhances pathogenic signalling mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to EMT activation, which is an important regulator of small airway fibrosis in obstructive lung diseases

    The Effects of Dual IQOS and Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Airway Epithelial Cells: Implications for Lung Health and Respiratory Disease Pathogenesis

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    Background Cigarette smoking remains a primary cause of chronic lung diseases. After a steady decline, smoking rates have recently increased especially with the introduction of newer electronic nicotine delivery devices, and it is also emerging that dual- or poly-product usage is on the rise. Additionally, with the introduction of IQOS (a heated tobacco product) globally, its impact on human health needs to be investigated. In this study we tested if dual exposure (cigarette smoke (CS)+IQOS) is detrimental to lung epithelial cells when compared with CS or IQOS exposure alone. Methods Human airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to either CS, IQOS or their dual combination (CS+IQOS) at concentrations of 0.1%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial homeostasis, mitophagy and effects on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) signalling were assessed. Results Both CS and IQOS alone significantly induced loss of cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner which was further enhanced by dual exposure compared with IQOS alone (p\u3c0.01). Dual exposure significantly increased oxidative stress and perturbed mitochondrial homeostasis when compared with CS or IQOS alone (p\u3c0.05). Additionally, dual exposure induced EMT signalling as shown by increased mesenchymal (α-smooth muscle actin and N-cadherin) and decreased epithelial (E-cadherin) markers when compared with CS or IQOS alone (p\u3c0.05). Conclusion Collectively, our study demonstrates that dual CS+IQOS exposure enhances pathogenic signalling mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to EMT activation, which is an important regulator of small airway fibrosis in obstructive lung diseases

    Safety of Bariatric Surgery in ≥ 65-Year-Old Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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    Background Age &gt;= 65 years is regarded as a relative contraindication for bariatric surgery. Advanced age is also a recognised risk factor for adverse outcomes with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) which continues to wreak havoc on global populations. This study aimed to assess the safety of bariatric surgery (BS) in this particular age group during the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison with the younger cohort.Methods We conducted a prospective international study of patients who underwent BS between 1/05/2020 and 31/10/2020. Patients were divided into two groups - patients &gt;= 65-years-old (Group I) and patients &lt; 65-years-old (Group II). The two groups were compared for 30-day morbidity and mortality.Results There were 149 patients in Group 1 and 6923 patients in Group II. The mean age, preoperative weight, and BMI were 67.6 +/- 2.5 years, 119.5 +/- 24.5 kg, and 43 +/- 7 in Group I and 39.8 +/- 11.3 years, 117.7 +/- 20.4 kg, and 43.7 +/- 7 in Group II, respectively. Approximately, 95% of patients in Group 1 had at least one co-morbidity compared to 68% of patients in Group 2 (p = &lt; 0.001). The 30-day morbidity was significantly higher in Group I ( 11.4%) compared to Group II (6.6%) (p = 0.022). However, the 30-day mortality and COVID-19 infection rates were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusions Bariatric surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a higher complication rate in those &gt;= 65 years of age compared to those &lt; 65 years old. However, the mortality and postoperative COVID-19 infection rates are not significantly different between the two groups

    A retrospective cohort study:pre-operative oral enteral nutritional optimisation for Crohnʼs disease in a UK tertiary IBD Centre

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    BACKGROUND: Low‐quality evidence suggests that pre‐operative exclusive enteral nutrition (E/EN) can improve postoperative outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). It is not standard practice in most centres. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that pre‐operative EN in patients undergoing ileal/ileocolonic surgery for CD is associated with improved postoperative outcome. METHODS: We performed a single centre retrospective observational study comparing surgical outcomes in patients receiving pre‐operative EN (≥600 kcal/day for ≥2 weeks) with those who received no nutritional optimisation. Consecutive adult patients undergoing ileal/ileocolonic resection from 2008 to 2020 were included. The primary outcome was postoperative complications <30 days. Secondary outcomes included EN tolerance, specific surgical complications, unplanned stoma formation, length of stay, length of bowel resected, readmission and biochemical/anthropometric changes. RESULTS: 300 surgeries were included comprising 96 without nutritional optimisation and 204 optimised cases: oral EN n = 173, additional PN n = 31 (4 of whom had received nasogastric/nasojejunal EN). 142/204 (69.6%) tolerated EN. 125/204 (61.3%) initiated EN in clinic. Patients in the optimised cohort were younger at operation and diagnosis, with an increased frequency of penetrating disease and exposure to antibiotics or biologics, and were more likely to undergo laparoscopic surgery. The optimised cohort had favourable outcomes on multivariate analysis: all complications [OR 0.29; 0.15–0.57, p < 0.001], surgical complications [OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.20–0.87, p = 0.02], non‐surgical complications [OR 0.24 95% CI 0.11–0.52, p < 0.001], infective complications [OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.16–0.66, p = 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Oral EN was reasonably well tolerated and associated with a reduction in 30‐day postoperative complications. Randomised controlled trials are required to confirm these findings

    Effect of BMI on safety of bariatric surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, procedure choice, and safety protocols - An analysis from the GENEVA Study

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    Background: It has been suggested that patients with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of &gt; 60 kg/m2 should be offered expedited Bariatric Surgery (BS) during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The main objective of this study was to assess the safety of this approach. Methods: We conducted a global study of patients who underwent BS between 1/05/2020 and 31/10/2020. Patients were divided into three groups according to their preoperative BMI -Group I (BMI &lt; 50 kg/m2), Group II (BMI 50-60 kg/m2), and Group III (BMI &gt; 60 kg/m2). The effect of preoperative BMI on 30-day morbidity and mortality, procedure choice, COVID-19 specific safety protocols, and comorbidities was assessed. Results: This study included 7084 patients (5197;73.4 % females). The mean preoperative weight and BMI were 119.49 &amp; PLUSMN; 24.4 Kgs and 43.03 &amp; PLUSMN; 6.9 Kg/m2, respectively. Group I included 6024 (85 %) patients, whereas Groups II and III included 905 (13 %) and 155 (2 %) patients, respectively.The 30-day mortality rate was higher in Group III (p = 0.001). The complication rate and COVID-19 infection were not different. Comorbidities were significantly more likely in Group III (p = &lt; 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of patients in group III received Sleeve Gastrectomy or One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass compared to other groups. Patients with a BMI of &gt; 70 kg/m2 had a 30-day mortality of 7.7 % (2/26). None of these patients underwent a Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Conclusion: The 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with BMI &gt; 60 kg/m2. There was, however, no significant difference in complications rates in different BMI groups, probably due to differences in procedure selection

    Emerging Advances of Nanotechnology in Drug and Vaccine Delivery against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (VARID)

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    Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines
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