316 research outputs found

    Current use and acceptability of novel diagnostic tests for active tuberculosis: a worldwide survey

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    Objective: To determine the current use and potential acceptance (by tuberculosis experts worldwide) of novel rapid tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis that are in line with World Health Organization target product profiles. Methods: A multilingual survey was disseminated online between July and November of 2016. Results: A total of 723 individuals from 114 countries responded to the survey. Smear microscopy was the most commonly used rapid tuberculosis test (available to 90.9% of the respondents), followed by molecular assays (available to 70.7%). Only a small proportion of the respondents in middle-and low-income countries had access to interferon-gamma-release assays. Serological and lateral flow immunoassays were used by more than a quarter (25.4%) of the respondents. Among the respondents who had access to molecular tests, 46.7% were using the Xpert assay overall, that proportion being higher in lower middle-income countries (55.6%) and low-income countries (76.6%). The data also suggest that there was some alignment of pricing for molecular assays. Respondents stated they would accept novel rapid tuberculosis tests if available, including molecular assays (acceptable to 86.0%) or biomarker-based serological assays (acceptable to 81.7%). Simple biomarker-based assays were more commonly deemed acceptable in middle-and lowincome countries. Conclusions: Second-generation molecular assays have become more widely available in high-and low-resource settings. However, the development of novel rapid tuberculosis tests continues to be considered important by tuberculosis experts. Our data also underscore the need for additional training and education of end users

    Exploring the role of l10 loop in new delhi metallo-β-lactamase (Ndm-1): Kinetic and dynamic studies

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    Four NDM-1 mutants (L218T, L221T, L269H and L221T/Y229W) were generated in order to investigate the role of leucines positioned in L10 loop. A detailed kinetic analysis stated that these amino acid substitutions modified the hydrolytic profile of NDM-1 against some β-lactams. Significant reduction of kcat values of L218T and L221T for carbapenems, cefazolin, cefoxitin and cefepime was observed. The stability of the NDM-1 and its mutants was explored by thermofluor assay in real-time PCR. The determination of TmB and TmD demonstrated that NDM-1 and L218T were the most stable enzymes. Molecular dynamic studies were performed to justify the differences observed in the kinetic behavior of the mutants. In particular, L218T fluctuated more than NDM-1 in L10, whereas L221T would seem to cause a drift between residues 75 and 125. L221T/Y229W double mutant exhibited a decrease in the flexibility with respect to L221T, explaining enzyme activity improvement towards some β-lactams. Distances between Zn1-Zn2 and Zn1-OH-or Zn2-OH-remained unaffected in all systems analysed. Significant changes were found between Zn1/Zn2 and first sphere coordination residues

    Amino acid replacement at position 228 induces fluctuation in the Ω-loop of KPC-3 and reduces the affinity against oxyimino cephalosporins: Kinetic and molecular dynamics studies

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    KPC enzymes are the most common class A carbapenemases globally diffused. The peculiarity of this family of β-lactamases is represented by their ability to hydrolyse all classes of β-lactams, including carbapenems, posing a serious problem to public health. In the present study, seven laboratory mutants of KPC-3 (D228S, D228W, D228M, D228K, D228L, D228I and D228G) were generated by site-saturation mutagenesis to explore the role of residue 228, a non-active site residue. Compared to KPC-3, the seven mutants showed evident differences in kcat and Km values calculated for some penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems. In particular, D228S and D228M showed a significant increase of Km values for cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Circular dichroism (CD) experiments have demonstrated that substitution at position 228 does not affect the secondary structure of the mutants. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on KPC-3, D228S and D228M uncomplexed and complexed with cefotaxime (substrate). Although the residue 228 is located far from the active site, between α11 helix and β7 sheet in the opposite site of the Ω-loop, amino acid substitution at this position generates mechanical effects in the active site resulting in enzyme activity changes

    Inhibition of the transcriptional repressor LexA: Withstanding drug resistance by inhibiting the bacterial mechanisms of adaptation to antimicrobials

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    Aims: LexA protein is a transcriptional repressor which regulates the expression of more than 60 genes belonging to the SOS global regulatory network activated by damages to bacterial DNA. Considering its role in bacteria, LexA represents a key target to counteract bacterial resistance: the possibility to modulate SOS response through the inhibition of LexA autoproteolysis may lead to reduced drug susceptibility and acquisition of resistance in bacteria. In our study we investigated boron-containing compounds as potential inhibitors of LexA self-cleavage. Main methods: The inhibition of LexA self-cleavage was evaluated by following the variation of the first-order rate constant by LC-MS at several concentrations of inhibitors. In silico analysis was applied to predict the binding orientations assumed by the inhibitors in the protein active site, upon covalent binding to the catalytic Ser-119. Bacterial filamentation assay was used to confirm the ability of (3-aminophenyl)boronic acid to interfere with SOS induced activation. Key findings: Boron-containing compounds act as inhibitors of LexA self-cleavage, as also confirmed by molecular modelling where the compounds interact with the catalytic Ser-119, via the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. A new equation for the description of the inhibition potency in an autoproteolytic enzyme is also disclosed. Bacterial filamentation assays strongly support the interference of our compounds with the SOS response activation through inhibition of septum formation. Significance: The obtained results demonstrated that phenylboronic compounds could be exploited in a hit-to-lead optimization process toward effective LexA self-cleavage inhibitors. They would sustain the rehabilitation in therapy of several dismissed antibiotics

    Antimycotic activity of ozonized oil in liposome eye drops against candida spp

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    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of ozonized oil eye drops in liposomes (Ozodrop), commercialized as eye lubricant for the treatment of dry eye syndrome and eye inflammation. The activity was tested against four clinical Candida species: C albicans, C glabrata, C krusei, and C orthopsilosis. Methods: The antifungal activity of the eye drop solution was ascertained by microdilution method in accordance with EUCAST obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration for Ozodrop. The mechanism of action was further investigated in C albicans by measuring cell vitality, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, levels of cellular and mitochondrial (∆ψm ) membrane potential, and the extent of membrane lipid peroxidation. Results: All Candida isolates were susceptible to Ozodrop with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.195% (v/v) for C glabrata to 6.25% (v/v) for C orthopsilosis. After 1 hour of exposure at the minimum inhibitory concentration value about 30% of cells were killed, reaching about 70% at the highest Ozodrop value. After Ozodrop exposure, C albicans showed cell membrane depolarization, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, depolarized ∆ψm, and increased reactive oxygen species generation. Conclusions: The significant increases in reactive oxygen species production cause the accumulation of reactive oxygen species-associated damages leading to progressive Candida cell dysfunction. Translational Relevance: The antifungal activity of Ozodrop was demonstrated at concentrations several times lower than the concentration that can be retrieved in ocular surface after its application. The antifungal activity of the eye drops Ozodrop would represent an interesting off-label indication for a product basically conceived as an eye lubricant

    Current use and acceptability of novel diagnostic tests for active tuberculosis: a worldwide survey

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    OBJECTIVE: To determine the current use and potential acceptance (by tuberculosis experts worldwide) of novel rapid tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis that are in line with World Health Organization target product profiles. METHODS: A multilingual survey was disseminated online between July and November of 2016. RESULTS: A total of 723 individuals from 114 countries responded to the survey. Smear microscopy was the most commonly used rapid tuberculosis test (available to 90.9% of the respondents), followed by molecular assays (available to 70.7%). Only a small proportion of the respondents in middle- and low-income countries had access to interferon-gamma-release assays. Serological and lateral flow immunoassays were used by more than a quarter (25.4%) of the respondents. Among the respondents who had access to molecular tests, 46.7% were using the Xpert assay overall, that proportion being higher in lower middle-income countries (55.6%) and low-income countries (76.6%). The data also suggest that there was some alignment of pricing for molecular assays. Respondents stated they would accept novel rapid tuberculosis tests if available, including molecular assays (acceptable to 86.0%) or biomarker-based serological assays (acceptable to 81.7%). Simple biomarker-based assays were more commonly deemed acceptable in middle- and low-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Second-generation molecular assays have become more widely available in high- and low-resource settings. However, the development of novel rapid tuberculosis tests continues to be considered important by tuberculosis experts. Our data also underscore the need for additional training and education of end users
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