141 research outputs found

    Global, regional, and national sex-specific burden and control of the HIV epidemic, 1990-2019, for 204 countries and territories: the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019

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    10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00152-1LANCET HIV810E633-E65

    Effectiveness of healthcare workers and volunteers training on improving tuberculosis case detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    IntroductionTuberculosis is the second most common infectious cause of death globally. Low TB case detection remains a major challenge to achieve the global End TB targets. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether training of health professionals and volunteers increase TB case detection.MethodsWe performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials and non-randomized control trials reporting on the effectiveness of health professionals and volunteers training on TB case detection. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, and reference sections of included articles from inception through to 15 February 2021, for studies published in English. Study screening, data extraction, and bias assessments were performed independently by two reviewers with third and fourth reviewers participating to resolve conflicts. The risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist. Meta-analyses were performed with a random effect model to estimate the effectiveness of training intervention on TB case detection.ResultsOf the 2015 unique records identified through our search strategies, 2007 records were excluded following the screening, leaving eight studies to be included in the final systematic review and meta-analysis. The results showed that providing training to health professionals and volunteers significantly increased TB case detection (RR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.53, 1.66). There was not a significant degree of heterogeneity across the included study on the outcome of interest (I2 = 0.00%, p = 0.667).ConclusionsProviding training to healthcare workers and volunteers can increase TB case detection

    Recovery Rate and Treatment Outcome in Children Aged 6–59 Months with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Outpatient Therapeutic Feeding, in Ethiopia

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    Different factors influence the recovery rate and treatment outcome of children with wasting using ready-to-use therapeutic food (OTP). Hence, our study aimed to assess determinants of the recovery rate among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) managed in OTP. A facility-based retrospective cohort study was conducted on 561 children treated in OTP. The proportion of recovery was 77.4%. The presence of edema, provision of amoxicillin, folic acid, and weight gain in the first 3 weeks were determinants of improved recovery rate. A better recovery rate could be achieved through improving the adherence to the proper administration of routine medications

    Food environment around schools and adolescent consumption of unhealthy foods in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Adolescent diets may be influenced by the retail food environment around schools. However, international research to examine associations between the proximity of retail food outlets to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an association. This study aims to understand the school food environment and drivers for adolescents' consumption of unhealthy foods in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Mixed-methods research was conducted, 1200 adolescents (10-14 years) from randomly selected government schools were surveyed, along with vendors within 5-min' walk of the schools and focus group discussions (FGDs) with adolescent groups. Mixed-effect logistic regression investigated the relationship between the number of vendors around the schools and the consumption of selected unhealthy foods. Thematic analysis was used to summarize findings from the FGDs. Consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages (S-SSB) and deep-fried foods (DFF) at least once a week was reported by 78.6% and 54.3% of the adolescents, respectively. Although all schools were surrounded by food vendors selling DFF and S-SSB, consumption was not associated with the number of vendors available around the school. However, adolescents' awareness and perception of healthy food, and their concerns about the safety of foods in the market, influenced their dietary choices and behaviours. Lack of financial resources to purchase food as desired also played a role in their selection of food and eating habits. Reported unhealthy food consumption is high among adolescents in Addis Ababa. Thus, further research is warranted to come up with school-based interventions that promote access and healthy food choices among adolescents

    Determinants of Malnutrition and its associated factors among pregnant and lactating women under armed conflict areas in North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a community-based study

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    Abstract Introduction Maternal malnutrition remains a major public health problem, particularly in low and middle-income countries and war-affected areas like Ethiopia. Malnourished pregnant and lactating women with low nutrient stores have babies with poor mental and physical development, increasing the risk of poor birth outcomes. Despite the fact that the majority of Ethiopian mothers are malnourished, there is little evidence in war-affected areas. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among pregnant and lactating mothers in the war affected area of North Gondar Zone, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 10 to May 25, 2022. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 1560 pregnant and lactating mothers. MUAC was to ascertain the outcome variable. Data was entered and analyzed by using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and SPSS version 24, respectively. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to identify the factors associated with acute malnutrition. An adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval was used to show the strength of the association, while a P-value of 0.05 was used to declare the significance of the association. Results The prevalence of acute malnutrition among pregnant and lactating women was 34.3% at the 95% CI (31.9–36.8). The age of the mothers (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.99), family size 6–8 (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.82), and greater than or equal to 9 family sizes (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.97), were significantly associated with acute malnutrition. Conclusions In the current study, the prevalence of acute malnutrition among pregnant and lactating mothers is high in the study area. Mother’s age and family size were factors associated with acute malnutrition in war-affected areas. As a result, mothers with large families will require special assistance to reduce the impact of malnutrition

    Dietary intake and quality for young adolescents in sub‐Saharan Africa: Status and influencing factors

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    Adolescents face the risk of the triple burden of malnutrition—the co‐existence of micronutrient deficiencies, underweight and overweight and obesity and related non-communicable diseases. Poor‐quality diets are a modifiable risk factor for all forms of malnutrition in adolescents. However, there is limited knowledge about diet quality for African adolescents. We analyzed data from 4609 school‐going adolescents aged 10–15 years in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Sudan and Tanzania. Dietary intake was assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and diet quality computed using the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS). Generalized estimating equations linear regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with adolescent diet quality. Mean adolescent age was 12.4 (±1.4) years and 54% of adolescents were female. Adolescents reported physical activity on 1.5 (±1.7) days/week. The mean GDQS (±SD) was 20.6 (±4.0) (maximum 40). Adolescent consumption of vegetables, fruit, nuts and seeds, eggs, fish and poultry was low, and refined grain consumption was relatively high. Boys consumed unhealthy foods less frequently but consumed fewer cruciferous vegetables and deep orange tubers. Older adolescents had higher fish and lower red meat consumption. Having an unemployed mother versus farmer (estimate−2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]:−4.81,−0.39), and having 3–4 days of physical activity per week versus none(estimate 0.64, 95% CI: 0.11, 1.17) were associated with GDQS. We found evidence of poor‐quality adolescent diets and gender and age differences in the consumption of healthy diets. Programs to address poor‐quality diets should consider tailoring interventions for adolescent girls and boys of different ages and also consider the role of physical activity in these contexts

    Food Safety and hygiene practices and the Determinants among street vendors during the Chain of Food Production in Northwest Ethiopia

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    Background: There is mounting evidence that Ethiopia is becoming a more street-food-consuming nation. The hygienic and safety procedures, however, are not adequately evaluated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of food safety and hygiene practices and associated factors among street food vendors of Bahir Dar City. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2019. The data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire with an observational checklist. The collected data were entered into EPI Data and analyzed by R software. Descriptive statistics were computed. A Binary logistic regression model was fit to identify the association and strength of exploratory variables and food safety and hygiene practices at a 95 % confidence interval and p-value 2500 Birr (AOR = 4.99; 95%CI: 2.42, 10.3), work experience of >2 years (AOR = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.15, 3.65), having supervision by health professionals (AOR = 2.45; 95%CI: 1.25, 4.85), having good knowledge about food safety and hygiene (AOR = 3.84; 95%CI: 1.42, 10.36), and having a favorable attitude towards food safety and hygiene (AOR = 2.71; 95%CI: 1.12, 6.57) were determinants of food safety and hygiene practice. Conclusions: The level of good food safety and hygiene practices was low. Monthly income, work experience, supervision by health professionals, knowledge, and attitude toward food safety and hygiene were identified as the determinants of good food safety and hygiene practice

    Risk factors for poor engagement with a smart pillbox adherence intervention among persons on tuberculosis treatment in Ethiopia.

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    BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment increases the risk of poor treatment outcomes. Digital adherence technologies (DATs), including the smart pillbox (EvriMED), aim to improve treatment adherence and are being widely evaluated. As part of the Adherence Support Coalition to End TB (ASCENT) project we analysed data from a cluster-randomised trial of DATs and differentiated care in Ethiopia to examine individual-factors for poor engagement with the smart pillbox. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cohort of trial participants with drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) whose treatment started between 1 December 2020 and 1 May 2022, and who were using the smart pillbox. Poor engagement with the pillbox was defined as (i) > 20% days with no digital confirmation and (ii) the count of days with no digital confirmation, and calculated over a two evaluation periods (56-days and 168-days). Logistic random effects regression was used to model > 20% days with no digital confirmation and negative binomial random effects regression to model counts of days with no digital confirmation, both accounting for clustering of individuals at the facility-level. RESULTS: Among 1262 participants, 10.8% (133/1262) over 56-days and 15.8% (200/1262) over 168-days had > 20% days with no digital confirmation. The odds of poor engagement was less among participants in the higher stratum of socio-economic position (SEP) over 56-days. Overall, 4,689/67,315 expected doses over 56-days and 18,042/199,133 expected doses over 168-days were not digitally confirmed. Compared to participants in the poorest SEP stratum, participants in the wealthiest stratum had lower rates of days not digitally confirmed over 168-days (adjusted rate ratio [RRa]:0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65, 0.96). In both evaluation periods (56-days and 168-days), HIV-positive status (RRa:1.29; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.63 and RRa:1.28; 95%CI: 1.07, 1.53), single/living independent (RRa:1.31; 95%CI: 1.03, 1.67 and RRa:1.38; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.64) and separated/widowed (RRa:1.40; 95%CI: 1.04, 1.90 and RRa:1.26; 95%CI: 1.00, 1.58) had higher rates of counts of days with no digital confirmation. CONCLUSION: Poorest SEP stratum, HIV-positive status, single/living independent and separated/ widowed were associated with poor engagement with smart pillbox among people with DS-TB in Ethiopia. Differentiated care for these sub-groups may reduce risk of non-adherence to TB treatment
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