179 research outputs found

    Mortality in rural coastal Kenya measured using the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System: a 16-year descriptive analysis [version 2; peer review: 3 approved, 1 approved with reservations]

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    Background: The Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) was established in 2000 to define the incidence and prevalence of local diseases and evaluate the impact of community-based interventions. KHDSS morbidity data have been reported comprehensively but mortality has not been described. This analysis describes mortality in the KHDSS over 16 years. Methods: We calculated mortality rates from 2003–2018 in four intervals of equal duration and assessed differences in mortality across these intervals by age and sex. We calculated the period survival function and median survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and mean life expectancies using abridged life tables. We estimated trend and seasonality by decomposing a time series of monthly mortality rates. We used choropleth maps and random-effects Poisson regression to investigate geographical heterogeneity. Results: Mortality declined by 36% overall between 2003–2018 and by 59% in children aged <5 years. Most of the decline occurred between 2003 and 2006. Among adults, the greatest decline (49%) was observed in those aged 15–54 years. Life expectancy at birth increased by 12 years. Females outlived males by 6 years. Seasonality was only evident in the 1–4 year age group in the first four years. Geographical variation in mortality was ±10% of the median value and did not change over time. Conclusions: Between 2003 and 2018, mortality among children and young adults has improved substantially. The steep decline in 2003–2006 followed by a much slower reduction thereafter suggests improvements in health and wellbeing have plateaued in the last 12 years. However, there is substantial inequality in mortality experience by geographical location

    Replication Data for: Mortality in rural coastal Kenya measured using the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System: a 16-year descriptive analysis

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    This is a replication dataset for the manuscript titled: "Mortality in rural coastal Kenya measured using the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System: a 16-year descriptive analysis" submitted to the Wellcome Open Research journal. The dataset contains demographic data from the KHDSS used to describe the mortality experience of the underlying population over a period of 16 years

    Mortality in rural coastal Kenya measured using the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System: a 16-year descriptive analysis

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    Background: The Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) was established in 2000 to define the incidence and prevalence of local diseases and evaluate the impact of community-based interventions. KHDSS morbidity data have been reported comprehensively but mortality has not been described. This analysis describes mortality in the KHDSS over 16 years. Methods: We calculated mortality rates from 2003–2018 in four intervals of equal duration and assessed differences in mortality across these intervals by age and sex. We calculated the period survival function and median survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and mean life expectancies using abridged life tables. We estimated trend and seasonality by decomposing a time series of monthly mortality rates. We used choropleth maps and random-effects Poisson regression to investigate geographical heterogeneity. Results: Mortality declined by 36% overall between 2003–2018 and by 59% in children aged <5 years. Most of the decline occurred between 2003 and 2006. Among adults, the greatest decline (49%) was observed in those aged 15–54 years. Life expectancy at birth increased by 12 years. Females outlived males by 6 years. Seasonality was only evident in the 1–4 year age group in the first four years. Geographical variation in mortality was ±10% of the median value and did not change over time. Conclusions: Between 2003 and 2018, mortality among children and young adults has improved substantially. The steep decline in 2003–2006 followed by a much slower reduction thereafter suggests improvements in health and wellbeing have plateaued in the last 12 years. However, there is substantial inequality in mortality experience by geographical location

    Measuring the spatial heterogeneity on the reduction of vaginal fistula burden in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2016

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    Vaginal fistula is a shattering maternal complication characterized by an anomalous opening between the bladder and/or rectum and vagina resulting in continuous leakage of urine or stool. Although prevalent in Ethiopia, its magnitude and distribution is not well studied. We used statistical mapping models using 2005 and 2016 Ethiopia Demographic Health Surveys data combined with a suite of potential risk factors to estimate the burden of vaginal fistula among women of childbearing age. The estimated number of women of childbearing age with lifetime and untreated vaginal fistula in 2016 were 72,533 (95% CI 38,235–124,103) and 31,961 (95% CI 11,596–70,309) respectively. These figures show reduction from the 2005 estimates: 98,098 (95% CI 49,819–170,737) lifetime and 59,114 (95% CI 26,580–118,158) untreated cases of vaginal fistula. The number of districts having more than 200 untreated cases declined drastically from 54 in 2005 to 6 in 2016. Our results show a significant subnational variation in the burden of vaginal fistula. Overall, between 2005 and 2016 there was substantial reduction in the prevalence of vaginal fistula in Ethiopia. Our results help guide local level tracking, planning, spatial targeting of resources and implementation of interventions against vaginal fistula

    Health system capacity for Tuberculosis Care in Ethiopia: evidence from national representative survey

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    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the TB health system capacity and its variations by location and types of health facilities in Ethiopia. Settings The study included 873 public and private health facilities all over Ethiopia. Design We used the Service Provision Assessment plus (SPA+) survey data that were collected in 2014 in all hospitals and randomly selected health centers and private facilities in all regions of Ethiopia. We assessed structural, process and overall health system capacity based on the Donabedian quality of care model. Multiple linear regression and spatial analysis were done to assess TB capacity score variation across regions. Results A total of 873 health facilities were included in the analysis. The overall TB care capacity score was 76.7%, 55.9% and 37.8% in public hospitals, health centers and private facilities respectively. The health system capacity score for TB was higher in the urban (60.4%) facilities compared to that of the rural (50.0%) facilities (β=8.0, 95%CI: 4.4, 11.6). Health centers (β= 16.2, 95%CI: -20.0, -12.3) and private health facilities (β= -38.3, 95%CI: -42.4, -35.1) had lower TB care capacity score than hospitals. Overall TB care capacity score were lower in Western and Southern western Ethiopia and in Benishangul Gumz and Gambella regions. Conclusions The health system capacity score for TB care in Ethiopia varied across regions. Health system capacity improvement interventions should focus on the private sectors and health facilities in the rural and remote areas to ensure equity and improve quality of care

    Good governance, public health expenditures, urbanization and child undernutrition Nexus in Ethiopia: an ecological analysis

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    Abstract Background Child undernutrition remains the major public health problem in low and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. The effects of good governance, urbanization and public health expenditure on childhood undernutrition are not well studied in developing countries. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between quality of governance, public health expenditures, urbanization and child undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods This is pooled data analysis with ecological design. We obtained data on childhood undernutrition from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) that were conducted in 2000, 2005, 2011 and 2016. Additionally, data on quality of governance for Ethiopia were extracted from the World Governance Indicators (WGI) and public health spending and urbanization were obtained from the World Development Indicators and United Nations’ World Population Prospects (WPP) respectively. Univariate and multivariate analysis were done to assess the relationship between governance, public health expenditure and urbanization with childhood undernutrition. Result Government effectiveness (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 20.7; p = 0.046), regulatory quality (AOR = 0.0077; p = 0.026) and control of corruption (AOR = 0.0019; p = 0.000) were associated with stunting. Similarly, government effectiveness (AOR = 72.2; p = 0.007), regulatory quality (AOR = 0.0015; p = 0.004) and control of corruption (AOR = 0.0005; p = 0.000) were associated with underweight. None of the governance indicators were associated with wasting. On the other hand, there is no statistically significant association observed between public health spending and urbanization with childhood undernutrition. However, other socio-demographic variables play a significant effect on reducing of child undernutrition. Conclusion This study indicates that good governance in the country plays a significant role for reducing childhood undernutrition along with other socio-demographic factors. Concerned bodies should focus on improving governance and producing a quality policy and at the same time monitor its implementation and adherence

    Burden of diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2015: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study

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    Is deployment of trained nurses to rural villages a remedy for the low skilled birth attendance in Ethiopia? A cluster randomized-controlled community trial.

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    BACKGROUND:Low coverage of Skilled Birth Attendance (SBA) is one of the major drivers of maternal mortality in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) including Ethiopia. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled community trial to assess the effect of deploying trained community based nurses to rural communities on the uptake levels of SBA in Ethiopia. METHODS:A three-arm, parallel groups, cluster-randomized community trial was conducted to assess the effect of deploying trained community based reproductive health nurses (CORN) on the uptake of SBA services. A total of 282 villages were randomly selected and assigned to a control arm (n = 94) or 1 of 2 treatment arms (n = 94 each). The treatment groups differed by where these new service providers were deployed, a health post (HP) or health center (HC). Baseline and end line surveys were conducted to document and measure the effects of the intervention. Program impacts on SBA coverage were calculated using difference-in-difference (DID) analysis. RESULTS:After nine months of intervention, the coverage of SBA services increased significantly by 81.1% (from 24.61 to 44.59) in the HP based intervention arm, and by 122.9% (from 16.41 to 36.59) in the HC arm, respectively (p 0.05). The DID estimate indicated a net increase in SBA coverage of 21.32 and 20.52 percentage points (PP) across the HP and HC based intervention arms, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Deployment of trained reproductive health nurses to rural communities in Ethiopia significantly improved utilization of SBA services. Therefore; in similar low income settings where coverage of SBA services is very low, deployment of trained community based nurses to grassroots level could potentiate rapid service uptake. Additional cost-effectiveness and validation studies at various setups are required, before scale-up of the innovation, however. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrails.gov NCT02501252

    The burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region, 1990–2015 : findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study

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    Objectives: Mental disorders are among the leading causes of nonfatal burden of disease globally. Methods: We used the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2015 to examine the burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). We defined mental disorders according to criteria proposed in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV and the 10th International Classification of Diseases. Results: Mental disorders contributed to 4.7% (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 3.7–5.6%) of total disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), ranking as the ninth leading cause of disease burden. Depressive disorders and anxiety disorders were the third and ninth leading causes of nonfatal burden, respectively. Almost all countries in the EMR had higher age-standardized mental disorder DALYs rates compared to the global level, and in half of the EMR countries, observed mental disorder rates exceeded the expected values. Conclusions: The burden of mental disorders in the EMR is higher than global levels, particularly for women. To properly address this burden, EMR governments should implement nationwide quality epidemiological surveillance of mental disorders and provide adequate prevention and treatment services
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