141 research outputs found

    Extracellular Vesicles in Comorbidities Associated with Ischaemic Heart Disease: Focus on Sex, an Overlooked Factor

    Get PDF
    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are emerging early markers of myocardial damage and key mediators of cardioprotection. Therefore, EV are becoming fascinating tools to prevent cardiovascular disease and feasible weapons to limit ischaemia/reperfusion injury. It is well known that metabolic syndrome negatively affects vascular and endothelial function, thus creating predisposition to ischemic diseases. Additionally, sex is known to significantly impact myocardial injury and cardioprotection. Therefore, actions able to reduce risk factors related to comorbidities in ischaemic diseases are required to prevent maladaptive ventricular remodelling, preserve cardiac function, and prevent the onset of heart failure. This implies that early diagnosis and personalised medicine, also related to sex differences, are mandatory for primary or secondary prevention. Here, we report the contribution of EV as biomarkers and/or therapeutic tools in comorbidities predisposing to cardiac ischaemic disease. Whenever possible, attention is dedicated to data linking EV to sex differences

    Obestatin induced recovery of myocardial dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats: underlying mechanisms.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether obestatin (OB), a peptide mediator encoded by the ghrelin gene exerting a protective effect in ischemic reperfused heart, is able to reduce cardiac dysfunctions in adult diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by STZ injection (50 mg/kg) in Wistar rats (DM). OB was administered (25 μg/kg) twice a day for 6 weeks. Non-diabetic (ND) rats and DM rats were distributed into four groups: untreated ND, OB-treated ND, untreated DM, OB-treated DM. Cardiac contractility and ß-adrenergic response were studied on isolated papillary muscles. Phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and GSK3ß as well ß-1 adrenoreceptors levels were detected by western blot, while α-MHC was measured by RT-PCR. RESULTS: OB preserved papillary muscle contractility (85 vs 27% of ND), ß-adrenergic response (103 vs 65% of ND), as well ß1-adrenoreceptors and α-MHC levels in diabetic myocardial tissue. Moreover, OB up-regulated the survival kinases Akt and ERK1/2, and enhanced AMPK and GSK3ß phosphorylation. OB corrected oxidative unbalance, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α plasma levels, NFkB translocation and pro-fibrogenic factors expression in diabetic myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: OB displays a significant beneficial effect against the alterations of contractility and ß-adrenergic response in the heart of STZ-treated diabetic rats, which was mainly associated with the ability of OB to up-regulate the transcription of ß1-adrenergic receptors and α-MHC; this protective effect was accompanied by the ability to restore oxidative balance and to promote phosphorylation/modulation of AMPK and pro-survival kinases such as Akt, ERK1/2 and GSK3ß
    • …