412 research outputs found

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    Thick Description/Thin Lines: Writing about process in Contemporary Performance

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    The author draws on his experience working with two theatre companies, the Gardzienice Theatre Association of Poland and the Suzuki Company of Toga, Japan, to explore questions about authority in writing about process in contemporary performance. He asks how from an ‘embedded’ position the researcher can stand back to appraise theatre practice fully and objectively – the kind of approach that Geertz called ‘thick description’ where personal field observations are then contextualised. This raises questions about how the majority of theatre scholarship operates, following Susan Melrose’s view that much of it is ‘expert spectator studies’, ie based on watching performances. Issues of ownership in writing are then explored further regarding the author’s difficulties in publishing a journal article in which the views expressed in interviews cited in the piece were considered ideologically unacceptable by the editor. The author asks if the practice and its interpretation in writing are one and the same thing. He posits that certain ‘lines’, some quite evident and others less tangible, exist in theatre scholarship of this kind that engages with process. He argues that issues about such lines and where authority lies in such writing need to be opened up for further scrutiny

    Benzene formation in the inner regions of protostellar disks

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    Benzene (c-C6H6) formation in the inner 3 AU of a protostellar disk can be efficient, resulting in high abundances of benzene in the midplane region. The formation mechanism is different to that found in interstellar clouds and in protoplanetary nebulae, and proceeds mainly through the reaction between allene (C3H4) and its ion. This has implications for PAH formation, in that some fraction of PAHs seen in the solar system could be native rather than inherited from the interstellar medium.Comment: 9 pages, 2 colour figures, to be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Turning back to Training

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    A response to a pervious Performance Research journal issue 'On Training' with artist's page

    Fundamentals of Plasma-Material Interactions in Magnetic Fusion Devices

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    The interaction of plasmas and materials has a long history in the modification of condensed matter. Plasma-material interaction (PMI) can govern how low-temperature and high-temperature plasmas interact and modify materials surfaces. In magnetic fusion devices, PMI can also influence the operation of the fusion device. For example, incident energetic charged particle on fusion wall material surfaces can release target atoms via sputtering and can implant fuel particles in the lattice. Implanted energetic particles can mix fuel and influence recycling of fuel back to the plasma. Sputtered target atoms can become ionized in the magnetic sheath and re-deposit at the wall surface. The magnetic sheath will influence the energy and angular distribution of incident energetic particles and influence the implantation and release of fusion fuel

    Designing bioactive porous titanium interfaces to balance mechanical properties and in vitro cells behavior towards increased osseointegration

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    Titanium implant failures are mainly related to stress shielding phenomenon and the poor cell interaction with host bone tissue. The development of bioactive and biomimetic Ti scaffolds for bone regeneration remains a challenge which needs the design of Ti implants with enhanced osseointegration. In this context, 4 types of titanium samples were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy, fully dense, dense etched, porous Ti, and porous etched Ti. Porous samples were manufactured by space holder technique, using ammonium bicarbonate particles as spacer in three different ranges of particle size (100–200 μm, 250–355 μm and 355–500 μm). Substrates were chemically etched by immersion in fluorhydric acid at different times (125 and 625 s) and subsequently, were characterized from a micro-structural, topographical and mechanical point of view. Etched surfaces showed an additional roughness preferentially located inside pores. In vitro tests showed that all substrates were biocompatible (80% of cell viability), confirming cell adhesion of premioblastic cells. Similarly, osteoblast showed similar cell proliferation rates at 4 days, however, higher cell metabolic activity was observed in fully dense and dense etched surfaces at 7 days. In contrast, a significant increase of alkaline phosphatase enzyme expression was observed in porous and porous etched samples compared to control surfaces (dense and dense etched), noticing the suitable surface modification parameters (porosity and roughness) to improve cell differentiation. Furthermore, the presence of pores and rough surfaces of porous Ti substrates remarkably decreased macrophage activation reducing the M1 phenotype polarization as well M1 cell marker expression. Thus, a successful surface modification of porous Ti scaffolds has been performed towards a reduction on stress shielding phenomenon and enhancement of bone osseointegration, achieving a biomechanical and biofunctional equilibrium.Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain grant MAT2015-71284-PJunta de Andalucía – FEDER (Spain) Project Ref. P12-TEP-140

    Directed Irradiation Synthesis as an Advanced Plasma Technology for Surface Modification to Activate Porous and “as-received” Titanium Surfaces

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    For the design of smart titanium implants, it is essential to balance the surface properties without any detrimental effect on the bulk properties of the material. Therefore, in this study, an irradiation-driven surface modification called directed irradiation synthesis (DIS) has been developed to nanopattern porousand“as-received”c.p. Tisur faces with the aim of improving cellular viability. Nano features were developed using singly-charged argon ions at 0.5 and 1.0 keV energies, incident angles from 0◦ to 75◦ degrees, and fluences up to 5.0×1017 cm−2. Irradiated surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle, observing an increased hydrophilicity (a contact angle reduction of 73.4% and 49.3%) and a higher roughness on both surfaces except for higher incident angles, which showed the smoothest surface. In-vitro studies demonstrated the biocompatibility of directed irradiation synthesis (DIS) reaching 84% and 87% cell viability levels at 1 and 7 days respectively, and a lower percentage of damaged DNA in tail compared to the control c.p. Ti. All these results confirm the potential of the DIS technique to modify complex surfaces at the nanoscale level promoting their biological performance.Department of Defense (Spain) contract W81XWH-11-2-0067Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain grant MAT2015-71284-

    Real time x-ray studies during nanostructure formation on silicon via low energy ion beam irradiation using ultrathin iron films

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    Real time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) are used to elucidate nanodot formation on silicon surfaces during low energy ion beam irradiation of ultrathin iron-coated silicon substrates. Four surface modification stages were identified: (1) surface roughening due to film erosion, (2) surface smoothing and silicon-iron mixing, (3) structure formation, and (4) structure smoothing. The results conclude that 2.5 x 10(15) iron atoms in a 50 nm depth triggers surface nanopatterning with a correlated nanodots distance of 25 nm. Moreover, there is a wide window in time where the surface can have correlated nanostructures even after the removal of all the iron atoms from the sample as confirmed by XRF and ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, in-situ XPS results indicated silicide formation, which plays a role in the structure formation mechanism. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4773202

    Tele-Immersive Improv: Effects of Immersive Visualisations on Rehearsing and Performing Theatre Online

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    Performers acutely need but lack tools to remotely rehearse and create live theatre, particularly due to global restrictions on social interactions during the Covid-19 pandemic. No studies, however, have heretofore examined how remote video-collaboration affects performance. This paper presents the findings of a field study with 16 domain experts over six weeks investigating how tele-immersion affects the rehearsal and performance of improvisational theatre. To conduct the study, an original media server was developed for co-locating remote performers into shared virtual 3D environments which were accessed through popular video conferencing software. The results of this qualitative study indicate that tele-immersive environments uniquely provide performers with a strong sense of co- presence, feelings of physical connection, and an increased ability to enter the social-flow states required for improvisational theatre. Based on our observations, we put forward design recommendations for video collaboration tools tailored to the unique demands of live performance
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