15 research outputs found

    <i>Streptomyces wadayamensis</i> MppP Is a Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate-Dependent l‑Arginine α‑Deaminase, γ‑Hydroxylase in the Enduracididine Biosynthetic Pathway

    No full text
    l-Enduracididine (l-End) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid found in a number of bioactive peptides, including the antibiotics teixobactin, enduracidin, and mannopeptimycin. The potent activity of these compounds against antibiotic-resistant pathogens like MRSA and their novel mode of action have garnered considerable interest for the development of these peptides into clinically relevant antibiotics. This goal has been hampered, at least in part, by the fact that l-End is difficult to synthesize and not currently commercially available. We have begun to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of this unusual building block. In mannopeptimycin-producing strains, like <i>Streptomyces wadayamensis</i>, l-End is produced from l-Arg by the action of three enzymes: MppP, MppQ, and MppR. Herein, we report the structural and functional characterization of MppP. This pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme was predicted to be a fold type I aminotransferase on the basis of sequence analysis. We show that MppP is actually the first example of a PLP-dependent hydroxylase that catalyzes a reaction of l-Arg with dioxygen to yield a mixture of 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-5-guanidinovaleric acid and 2-oxo-5-guanidinovaleric acid in a 1.7:1 ratio. The structure of MppP with PLP bound to the catalytic lysine residue (Lys221) shows that, while the tertiary structure is very similar to those of the well-studied aminotransferases, there are differences in the arrangement of active site residues around the cofactor that likely account for the unusual activity of this enzyme. The structure of MppP with the substrate analogue d-Arg bound shows how the enzyme binds its substrate and indicates why d-Arg is not a substrate. On the basis of this work and previous work with MppR, we propose a plausible biosynthetic scheme for l-End

    Structural and Functional Characterization of MppR, an Enduracididine Biosynthetic Enzyme from <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i>: Functional Diversity in the Acetoacetate Decarboxylase-like Superfamily

    No full text
    The nonproteinogenic amino acid enduracididine is a critical component of the mannopeptimycins, cyclic glycopeptide antibiotics with activity against drug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. Enduracididine is produced in <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i> by three enzymes, MppP, MppQ, and MppR. On the basis of primary sequence analysis, MppP and MppQ are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases; MppR shares a low, but significant, level of sequence identity with acetoacetate decarboxylase. The exact reactions catalyzed by each enzyme and the intermediates involved in the route to enduracididine are currently unknown. Herein, we present biochemical and structural characterization of MppR that demonstrates a catalytic activity for this enzyme and provides clues about its role in enduracididine biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analysis shows that MppR belongs to a previously uncharacterized family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily (ADCSF) and suggests that MppR-like enzymes may catalyze reactions diverging from the well-characterized, prototypical ADCSF decarboxylase activity. MppR shares a high degree of structural similarity with acetoacetate decarboxylase, though the respective quaternary structures differ markedly and structural differences in the active site explain the observed loss of decarboxylase activity. The crystal structure of MppR in the presence of a mixture of pyruvate and 4-imidazolecarboxaldehyde shows that MppR catalyzes the aldol condensation of these compounds and subsequent dehydration. Surprisingly, the structure of MppR in the presence of “4-hydroxy-2-ketoarginine” shows the correct 4<i>R</i> enantiomer of “2-ketoenduracididine” bound to the enzyme. These data, together with bioinformatic analysis of MppR homologues, identify a novel family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily with divergent active site structure and, consequently, biochemical function

    Total Synthesis of Macrocarpines D and E via an Enolate-Driven Copper-Mediated Cross-Coupling Process: Replacement of Catalytic Palladium with Copper Iodide

    No full text
    An enolate driven copper-mediated cross-coupling process enabled cheaper and greener access to the key pentacyclic intermediates required for the enantiospecific total synthesis of a number of C-19 methyl substituted sarpagine/macroline indole alkaloids. Replacement of palladium (60–68%) with copper iodide (82–89%) resulted in much higher yields. The formation of an unusual 7-membered cross-coupling product was completely inhibited by using TEMPO as a radical scavenger. Further functionalization led to the first enantiospecific total synthesis of macrocarpines D and E

    <i>Streptomyces wadayamensis</i> MppP is a PLP-Dependent Oxidase, Not an Oxygenase

    No full text
    The PLP-dependent l-arginine hydroxylase/deaminase MppP from <i>Streptomyces wadayamensis</i> (SwMppP) is involved in the biosynthesis of l-enduracididine, a nonproteinogenic amino acid found in several nonribosomally produced peptide antibiotics. SwMppP uses only PLP and molecular oxygen to catalyze a 4-electron oxidation of l-arginine to form a mixture of 2-oxo-4­(S)-hydroxy-5-guanidinovaleric acid and 2-oxo-5-guanidinovaleric acid. Steady-state kinetics analysis in the presence and absence of catalase shows that one molecule of peroxide is formed for every molecule of dioxygen consumed in the reaction. Moreover, for each molecule of 2-oxo-4­(S)-hydroxy-5-guanidinovaleric acid produced, two molecules of dioxygen are consumed, suggesting that both the 4-hydroxy and 2-keto groups are derived from water. This was confirmed by running the reactions using either <sup>[18]</sup>O<sub>2</sub> or H<sub>2</sub><sup>[18]</sup>O and analyzing the products by ESI-MS. Incorporation of <sup>[18]</sup>O was only observed when the reaction was performed in H<sub>2</sub><sup>[18]</sup>O. Crystal structures of SwMppP with l-arginine, 2-oxo-4­(S)-hydroxy-5-guanidinovaleric acid, or 2-oxo-5-guanidinovaleric acid bound were determined at resolutions of 2.2, 1.9. and 1.8 Å, respectively. The structural data show that the N-terminal portion of the protein is disordered unless substrate or product is bound in the active site, in which case it forms a well-ordered helix that covers the catalytic center. This observation suggested that the N-terminal helix may have a role in substrate binding and/or catalysis. Our structural and kinetic characterizations of N-terminal variants show that the N-terminus is critical for catalysis. In light of this new information, we have refined our previously proposed mechanism of the SwMppP-catalyzed oxidation of l-arginine

    Structural and Functional Characterization of MppR, an Enduracididine Biosynthetic Enzyme from <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i>: Functional Diversity in the Acetoacetate Decarboxylase-like Superfamily

    No full text
    The nonproteinogenic amino acid enduracididine is a critical component of the mannopeptimycins, cyclic glycopeptide antibiotics with activity against drug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. Enduracididine is produced in <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i> by three enzymes, MppP, MppQ, and MppR. On the basis of primary sequence analysis, MppP and MppQ are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases; MppR shares a low, but significant, level of sequence identity with acetoacetate decarboxylase. The exact reactions catalyzed by each enzyme and the intermediates involved in the route to enduracididine are currently unknown. Herein, we present biochemical and structural characterization of MppR that demonstrates a catalytic activity for this enzyme and provides clues about its role in enduracididine biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analysis shows that MppR belongs to a previously uncharacterized family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily (ADCSF) and suggests that MppR-like enzymes may catalyze reactions diverging from the well-characterized, prototypical ADCSF decarboxylase activity. MppR shares a high degree of structural similarity with acetoacetate decarboxylase, though the respective quaternary structures differ markedly and structural differences in the active site explain the observed loss of decarboxylase activity. The crystal structure of MppR in the presence of a mixture of pyruvate and 4-imidazolecarboxaldehyde shows that MppR catalyzes the aldol condensation of these compounds and subsequent dehydration. Surprisingly, the structure of MppR in the presence of “4-hydroxy-2-ketoarginine” shows the correct 4<i>R</i> enantiomer of “2-ketoenduracididine” bound to the enzyme. These data, together with bioinformatic analysis of MppR homologues, identify a novel family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily with divergent active site structure and, consequently, biochemical function

    Total Synthesis of Macrocarpines D and E via an Enolate-Driven Copper-Mediated Cross-Coupling Process: Replacement of Catalytic Palladium with Copper Iodide

    No full text
    An enolate driven copper-mediated cross-coupling process enabled cheaper and greener access to the key pentacyclic intermediates required for the enantiospecific total synthesis of a number of C-19 methyl substituted sarpagine/macroline indole alkaloids. Replacement of palladium (60–68%) with copper iodide (82–89%) resulted in much higher yields. The formation of an unusual 7-membered cross-coupling product was completely inhibited by using TEMPO as a radical scavenger. Further functionalization led to the first enantiospecific total synthesis of macrocarpines D and E

    Structural and Functional Characterization of MppR, an Enduracididine Biosynthetic Enzyme from <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i>: Functional Diversity in the Acetoacetate Decarboxylase-like Superfamily

    No full text
    The nonproteinogenic amino acid enduracididine is a critical component of the mannopeptimycins, cyclic glycopeptide antibiotics with activity against drug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. Enduracididine is produced in <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i> by three enzymes, MppP, MppQ, and MppR. On the basis of primary sequence analysis, MppP and MppQ are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases; MppR shares a low, but significant, level of sequence identity with acetoacetate decarboxylase. The exact reactions catalyzed by each enzyme and the intermediates involved in the route to enduracididine are currently unknown. Herein, we present biochemical and structural characterization of MppR that demonstrates a catalytic activity for this enzyme and provides clues about its role in enduracididine biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analysis shows that MppR belongs to a previously uncharacterized family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily (ADCSF) and suggests that MppR-like enzymes may catalyze reactions diverging from the well-characterized, prototypical ADCSF decarboxylase activity. MppR shares a high degree of structural similarity with acetoacetate decarboxylase, though the respective quaternary structures differ markedly and structural differences in the active site explain the observed loss of decarboxylase activity. The crystal structure of MppR in the presence of a mixture of pyruvate and 4-imidazolecarboxaldehyde shows that MppR catalyzes the aldol condensation of these compounds and subsequent dehydration. Surprisingly, the structure of MppR in the presence of “4-hydroxy-2-ketoarginine” shows the correct 4<i>R</i> enantiomer of “2-ketoenduracididine” bound to the enzyme. These data, together with bioinformatic analysis of MppR homologues, identify a novel family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily with divergent active site structure and, consequently, biochemical function

    Base-Mediated Stereospecific Synthesis of Aryloxy and Amino Substituted Ethyl Acrylates

    No full text
    The stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted <i>E</i>- and <i>Z</i>-ethyl-3-acrylates is of interest because of their potential in the polymer industry and in medicinal chemistry. During work on a copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of ethyl (<i>E</i>)- and (<i>Z</i>)-3-iodoacrylates with phenols and <i>N</i>-heterocycles, we discovered a very simple (nonmetallic) method for the stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates. To study this long-standing problem on the stereoselectivity of aryloxy and amino substituted acrylates, a series of <i>O-</i> and <i>N-</i>substituted nucleophiles was allowed to react with ethyl (<i>E</i>)- and (<i>Z</i>)-3-iodoacrylates. Screening of different bases indicated that DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]­octane) afforded successful conversion of ethyl (<i>E</i>)- and (<i>Z</i>)-3-iodoacrylates into aryloxy and amino substituted ethyl acrylates in a stereospecific manner. Herein are the details of this DABCO-mediated stereospecific synthesis of aryloxy and amino substituted <i>E-</i> or <i>Z-</i>acrylates

    Structural and Functional Characterization of MppR, an Enduracididine Biosynthetic Enzyme from <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i>: Functional Diversity in the Acetoacetate Decarboxylase-like Superfamily

    No full text
    The nonproteinogenic amino acid enduracididine is a critical component of the mannopeptimycins, cyclic glycopeptide antibiotics with activity against drug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. Enduracididine is produced in <i>Streptomyces hygroscopicus</i> by three enzymes, MppP, MppQ, and MppR. On the basis of primary sequence analysis, MppP and MppQ are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases; MppR shares a low, but significant, level of sequence identity with acetoacetate decarboxylase. The exact reactions catalyzed by each enzyme and the intermediates involved in the route to enduracididine are currently unknown. Herein, we present biochemical and structural characterization of MppR that demonstrates a catalytic activity for this enzyme and provides clues about its role in enduracididine biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analysis shows that MppR belongs to a previously uncharacterized family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily (ADCSF) and suggests that MppR-like enzymes may catalyze reactions diverging from the well-characterized, prototypical ADCSF decarboxylase activity. MppR shares a high degree of structural similarity with acetoacetate decarboxylase, though the respective quaternary structures differ markedly and structural differences in the active site explain the observed loss of decarboxylase activity. The crystal structure of MppR in the presence of a mixture of pyruvate and 4-imidazolecarboxaldehyde shows that MppR catalyzes the aldol condensation of these compounds and subsequent dehydration. Surprisingly, the structure of MppR in the presence of “4-hydroxy-2-ketoarginine” shows the correct 4<i>R</i> enantiomer of “2-ketoenduracididine” bound to the enzyme. These data, together with bioinformatic analysis of MppR homologues, identify a novel family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily with divergent active site structure and, consequently, biochemical function

    Total Synthesis of Macrocarpines D and E via an Enolate-Driven Copper-Mediated Cross-Coupling Process: Replacement of Catalytic Palladium with Copper Iodide

    No full text
    An enolate driven copper-mediated cross-coupling process enabled cheaper and greener access to the key pentacyclic intermediates required for the enantiospecific total synthesis of a number of C-19 methyl substituted sarpagine/macroline indole alkaloids. Replacement of palladium (60–68%) with copper iodide (82–89%) resulted in much higher yields. The formation of an unusual 7-membered cross-coupling product was completely inhibited by using TEMPO as a radical scavenger. Further functionalization led to the first enantiospecific total synthesis of macrocarpines D and E
    corecore