334 research outputs found

    Effects of selected light wavelengths on the transcript levels of photoreceptors and growth-related hormones and peptides in the Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus

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    Fish growth is influenced by environmental cues, including light conditions. The duration of exposure (photoperiod), the intensity of exposure (illumination), and quality (light spectrum) play crucial roles in maximizing growth. This study aimed to clarify how selected light wavelengths are perceived and transduced as an internal signal to stimulate growth of the Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus, an important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Four opsins (RH1, RH2, SWS2, and LWS) were selected from the database of photoreceptors of groupers, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that these opsins were expressed in the eyes and brain. When fish were reared under conditions of long-day (light:dark = 14:10) with red (peak at 632 nm), green (519 nm), and blue (465 nm) LED and natural light, the specific growth rate was higher (P < 0.05) in fish exposed to blue LED light than to red LED light. Rearing fish under shorter light wavelengths (blue or green) resulted in high transcript levels (P < 0.05) of RH1 and RH2 in the eyes (retina) and of RH1 and SWS2 in the brain (diencephalon), suggesting that certain light wavelengths activate photoreceptors in light perceptive organs. The transcript levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the pituitary and liver of fish reared under blue LED light, respectively. Moreover, similar increases (P < 0.05) in the transcripts of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin were observed in the brain of fish reared under blue LED light. We concluded that blue light perceived by visual opsins in the eyes and brain activates the growth of the endocrine axis and its interaction with NPY. Consequently, rearing the Malabar grouper under specific light wavelengths helps maximize their growth

    Stimulatory Effects of Boron Containing Bioactive Glass on Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis of Polycaprolactone: In Vitro Study

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    Polycaprolactone (PCL) has attracted great attention for bone regeneration attributed to its cost-efficiency, high toughness, and good processability. However, the relatively low elastic modulus, hydrophobic nature, and insufficient bioactivity of pure PCL limited its wider application for bone regeneration. In the present study, the effects of the addition of boron containing bioactive glass (B-BG) materials on the mechanical properties and biological performance of PCL polymer were investigated with different B-BG contents (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.%), in order to evaluate the potential applications of B-BG/PCL composites for bone regeneration. The results showed that the B-BG/PCL composites possess better tensile strength, human neutral pH value, and fast degradation as compared to pure PCL polymers. Moreover, the incorporation of B-BG could enhance proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and angiogenic factor expression for rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as compared to pure PCL polymers. Importantly, the B-BG also promoted the angiogenic differentiation for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These enhanced effects had a concentration dependence of B-BG content, while 30 wt.% B-BG/PCL composites achieved the greatest stimulatory effect. Therefore the 30 wt.% B-BG/PCL composites have potential applications in bone reconstruction fields

    Evaluation of cell count and classification capabilities in body fluids using a fully automated Sysmex XN equipped with high-sensitive Analysis (hsA) mode and DI-60 hematology analyzer system

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    <div><p>The XN series automated hematology analyzer has been equipped with a body fluid (BF) mode to count and differentiate leukocytes in BF samples including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, its diagnostic accuracy is not reliable for CSF samples with low cell concentration at the border between normal and pathologic level. To overcome this limitation, a new flow cytometry-based technology, termed “high sensitive analysis (hsA) mode,” has been developed. In addition, the XN series analyzer has been equipped with the automated digital cell imaging analyzer DI-60 to classify cell morphology including normal leukocytes differential and abnormal malignant cells detection. Using various BF samples, we evaluated the performance of the XN-hsA mode and DI-60 compared to manual microscopic examination. The reproducibility of the XN-hsA mode showed good results in samples with low cell densities (coefficient of variation; % CV: 7.8% for 6 cells/μL). The linearity of the XN-hsA mode was established up to 938 cells/μL. The cell number obtained using the XN-hsA mode correlated highly with the corresponding microscopic examination. Good correlation was also observed between the DI-60 analyses and manual microscopic classification for all leukocyte types, except monocytes. In conclusion, the combined use of cell counting with the XN-hsA mode and automated morphological analyses using the DI-60 mode is potentially useful for the automated analysis of BF cells.</p></div

    Novel flowcytometry-based approach of malignant cell detection in body fluids using an automated hematology analyzer

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    <div><p>Morphological microscopic examinations of nucleated cells in body fluid (BF) samples are performed to screen malignancy. However, the morphological differentiation is time-consuming and labor-intensive. This study aimed to develop a new flowcytometry-based gating analysis mode “XN-BF gating algorithm” to detect malignant cells using an automated hematology analyzer, Sysmex XN-1000. XN-BF mode was equipped with WDF white blood cell (WBC) differential channel. We added two algorithms to the WDF channel: Rule 1 detects larger and clumped cell signals compared to the leukocytes, targeting the clustered malignant cells; Rule 2 detects middle sized mononuclear cells containing less granules than neutrophils with similar fluorescence signal to monocytes, targeting hematological malignant cells and solid tumor cells. BF samples that meet, at least, one rule were detected as malignant. To evaluate this novel gating algorithm, 92 various BF samples were collected. Manual microscopic differentiation with the May-Grunwald Giemsa stain and WBC count with hemocytometer were also performed. The performance of these three methods were evaluated by comparing with the cytological diagnosis. The XN-BF gating algorithm achieved sensitivity of 63.0% and specificity of 87.8% with 68.0% for positive predictive value and 85.1% for negative predictive value in detecting malignant-cell positive samples. Manual microscopic WBC differentiation and WBC count demonstrated 70.4% and 66.7% of sensitivities, and 96.9% and 92.3% of specificities, respectively. The XN-BF gating algorithm can be a feasible tool in hematology laboratories for prompt screening of malignant cells in various BF samples.</p></div

    Exact ZF Analysis and Computer-Algebra-Aided Evaluation in Rank-1 LoS Rician Fading

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    We study zero-forcing detection (ZF) for multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing under transmit-correlated Rician fading for an N_R X N_T channel matrix with rank-1 line-of-sight (LoS) component. By using matrix transformations and multivariate statistics, our exact analysis yields the signal-to-noise ratio moment generating function (m.g.f.) as an infinite series of gamma distribution m.g.f.'s and analogous series for ZF performance measures, e.g., outage probability and ergodic capacity. However, their numerical convergence is inherently problematic with increasing Rician K-factor, N_R , and N_T. We circumvent this limitation as follows. First, we derive differential equations satisfied by the performance measures with a novel automated approach employing a computer-algebra tool which implements Groebner basis computation and creative telescoping. These differential equations are then solved with the holonomic gradient method (HGM) from initial conditions computed with the infinite series. We demonstrate that HGM yields more reliable performance evaluation than by infinite series alone and more expeditious than by simulation, for realistic values of K , and even for N_R and N_T relevant to large MIMO systems. We envision extending the proposed approaches for exact analysis and reliable evaluation to more general Rician fading and other transceiver methods.Comment: Accepted for publication by the IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, on April 7th, 2016; this is the final revision before publicatio