14,162 research outputs found

    Industrial development, agricultural growth, urbanization and environmental Kuznets curve in Pakistan

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    The debate of environmental issues and their analysis is of vital interest for economic policies. Institutions are engaged in identifying and estimating the extent of environmental impact of determinants controllable via policy measures. Annual data from the on Carbon Dioxide emission, economic growth, consumption of energy, openness for foreign trade, urbanization, industrial growth and agriculture growth on Pakistan is used for 1971 to 2007. Augmented Vector Autoregression technique and cointegration analysis is implemented to test Granger causality. Gross domestic product significantly Granger causes emission of Carbon Dioxide and energy consumption. On the other hand emissions of CO2 affect economic growth, agriculture and industrial growth in the long run. It is also evident that energy consumption unidirectional Granger causes emission of Carbon Dioxide. Industrialization and urbanization bidirectional Granger causes each other. The results indicate the more careful industrial and energy policies to reduce emissions and control global warming.Pakistan, Carbon Dioxide emission, Environment, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Foreign Trade

    Wheat growth and phytoavailability of copper and zinc as affected by soil texture in saline-sodic conditions

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    Nutrient disorders in saline-sodic soils can adversely affect crop growth. In order to evaluate the growth response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Cu and Zn and the phytoavailability of these essential elements, a pot experiment was conducted in three different textured saline-sodic soils [sandy loam (SL), sandy clay loam (SCL) and clay (C)] having an ECe 8.63, 8.80, 8.98 dS m–1 and SAR 21.66, 23.48, 24.84 (mmol L–1)1/2 respectively. Seven treatments including levels of Cu (4, 6 and 8 mg kg–1) and levels of Zn (4, 6 and 8 mg kg–1) were separately applied together with a single control treatment. Dry matter yield (straw + grain) of wheat increased up to 35.2% with Cu and up to 31.2 % with Zn application relative to the control. As soil clay content increased, dry matter yield decreased up to 39.2% in SCL and up to 62.7% in C soil when compared to SL soil. Application of Cu increased the concentration in both wheat straw and grains up to 2.46 and 2.20 mg kg–1 DW respectively relative to the control. Zinc concentration in wheat straw and grains was also increased up to 29.97 and 29.40 mg kg–1 DW respectively relative to the controls. Copper application significantly increased Zn concentrations in wheat plants
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