1,198 research outputs found

    Quantum State Tomography and Quantum Games

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    We develop a technique for single qubit quantum state tomography using the mathematical setup of generalized quantization scheme for games. In our technique Alice sends an unknown pure quantum state to Bob who appends it with |0><0| and then applies the unitary operators on the appended quantum state and finds the payoffs for Alice and himself. It is shown that for a particular set of unitary operators these elements become equal to Stokes parameters for an unknown quantum state. In this way an unknown quantum state can be measured and reconstructed. Strictly speaking this technique is not a game as no strategic competitions are involved.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    Health hazard assessment of pesticide mixtures exposure : cell and molecular impacts after short and chronic exposure

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    Les pesticides sont omniprésents dans la nature et peuvent présenter des dangers pour l'homme, exposé via son alimentation et son environnement au sens large. Huit mélanges de pesticides composés au total de vingt-huit molécules ont été étudiés, par référence aux bases de données nationale de contamination et d'exposition alimentaire à ces résidus, établies par l'ANSES. Le but de ce travail était d'évaluer les impacts cellulaires et moléculaires de ces pesticides seuls et sous forme de mélanges, après exposition de cellules d'origine humaine (primo-cultures d'hépatocytes et lignées HepaRG, HepG2 et hPXR/HepG2). Les paramètres toxicologiques retenus ont été les suivants : cytotoxicité en temps réel par la technologie d'impédance cellulaire, transactivation du récepteur nucléaire PXR et expression génique, notamment de ses gènes cibles. L'activation du PXR s'est révélée être un excellent biomarqueur pour évaluer les potentiels effets additifs, synergiques ou antagonistes résultant du mélange de pesticides par rapport à ceux des produits pris séparément selon un modèle mécanistique de concentration addition. Cette réponse s'avère en exellente adéquation avec l'induction du CYP3A. Les mélanges de pesticides présentent un effet cytotoxique et induisent l'expression temps- et concentration-dépendante des CYP3A, UGT1A1, P-ERK1. Ces résultats confirme l'hypothèse qu'en pertubant certaines voie de signalisation cellulaire, l'exposition chronique aux mélanges de pesticides pourrait favoriser l'occurrence de pathologies chez l'homme et ouvrent de nouvelles pistes de recherche.Pesticides are ubiquitous in nature, having the potential for toxic effects on human health via food and environmental. Eight pesticide mixtures of twenty eight pesticides were identified by using national database of food consumption and pesticide residues. The aim of this work was the risk assessment of selected pesticides and their mixtures combined effects which are likely to occur through actual French diet. In vitro perturbations in human cells (primary hepatocytes, HepaRG, HepG2 and hPXR/HepG2) were evaluated by using pregnane X receptor transactivation, real-time cellular impedance method (Electronic Sensor Technology) and other conventional cytotoxic and gene expression biomonitoring assays. The PXR tansactivation was found to be consistent with the abilities of chemical mixtures to induce CYP3A4 and was modelised to apply the concentration addition model. Our results indicate that PXR activation is a useful biomarker for assessing pesticide mixture risk assessment. Pesticide mixtures showed time and concentration dependent cytotoxic and gene expression (CYP3A, UGT1A1, P-ERK1/2) effects, indicating possible initiation of pathologies in humans. The present study may help to better understand the mechanisms involved in health hazard effects of multiple environmental contaminants. This could improve the quality of early evaluations of a product's safety to meet the standards required to reduce the risks to human health. Key words: Food toxicology, pesticide mixtures, cytoxicity, pregnane X receptor, human hepatocytes, real-time cell analyzer, hazards and risk assessment

    Impacts of Guerrilla Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior

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    The main aim of this study is to investigate the association of guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior. Guerrilla advertising is one of the growing marketing techniques which are used by advertising industry that makes a use of unusual or unconventional means of promoting the product to the market. Questionnaires are utilized and administered in the process of collecting data on the primary level. We floated a total of 230 questionnaires out of which we got appropriate answers of 200 questionnaires that consumer-buying behavior is greatly affected by guerrilla advertisement. The nature of this research is causal. The buying behavior of consumer is taken as a dependent variable and guerrilla advertising as an independent variable. We have two variables Dependent and Independent variable. We alienated independent variable into their sub variables as marketing activities, promotional activities, man vs. information, annoyance, low budget ads and ads. Dependent variable sub divided into convincing power, billboards and buying behavior, according to the questions present in our questionnaire. Response rate of 86.95% was reported. This is a causal research therefore we will use the simple regression model to check the significance effect of guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior. On the basis of our research it has been found that there is a significant impact of guerrilla advertising on consumer buying behavior. Keywords: Guerrilla Advertising; Buying Behavior; Guerrilla Marketing; Dependent Variable; Independent Variable; Informational Annoyanc

    Comparative Analysis of Stock Returns Generated from Their Broad Index Performance and Liquidity as per Their Share Turnover Velocity: Pre and Post Demutualization

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    The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of demutualization upon the performance of stock exchanges’ in terms of their liquidity as per the share turnover velocity and the returns that are generated from the broad indexes. The impact of demutualization has been examined upon a global basis, regional basis and amongst individual exchanges; the sample size is that of 3 stock exchanges from each region. The three regions from which the exchanges have been selected are the Americas, Asia Pacific and Europe. The model applied in this study was the matched-pair t-test to examine the pre and post demutualization levels of liquidity and returns generated. The results of this study show that demutualization increases the liquidity of the exchanges to a greater degree as compared to improving the returns of the exchanges. Therefore, the conclusions of this study are that demutualization is a not favorable for investors because demutualization does not increase the returns generated in an exchange; the increase in liquidity caused by demutualization makes it favorable for members of the exchange. However, this study does not take into consideration the global financial conditions while assessing the impact of demutualization upon a global scale. Keywords: Demutualization, stock exchanges, liquidity, share turnover velocity, returns, broad indexes, Americas, Asia-Pacific, Europe, matched-pair t-test, global financial conditions
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