72 research outputs found

    Altered Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation Due to Ablation of Grx1

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    Glutaredoxins (Grx) are redox enzymes that remove glutathione bound to protein thiols, know as S-glutathionylation (PSSG). PSSG is a reservoir of GSH and can affect the function of proteins. It inhibits the NF-κB pathway and LPS aspiration in Grx1 KO mice with decreased inflammatory cytokine levels. In this study we investigated whether absence of Grx1 similarly repressed cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in an exposure model in mice. Cigarette smoke exposure for four weeks decreased lung PSSG levels, but increased PSSG in lavaged cells and lavage fluid (BALF). Grx1 KO mice had increased levels of PSSG in lung tissue, BALF and BAL cells in response to smoke compared to wt mice. Importantly, levels of multiple inflammatory mediators in the BALF were decreased in Grx1 KO animals following cigarette smoke exposure compared to wt mice, as were levels of neutrophils, dendritic cells and lymphocytes. On the other hand, macrophage numbers were higher in Grx1 KO mice in response to smoke. Although cigarette smoke in vivo caused inverse effects in inflammatory and resident cells with respect to PSSG, primary macrophages and epithelial cells cultured from Grx1 KO mice both produced less KC compared to cells isolated from WT mice after smoke extract exposure. In this manuscript, we provide evidence that Grx1 has an important role in regulating cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation which seems to diverge from its effects on total PSSG. Secondly, these data expose the differential effect of cigarette smoke on PSSG in inflammatory versus resident lung cells

    Redox amplification of apoptosis by caspase-dependent cleavage of glutaredoxin 1 and S-glutathionylation of Fas

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    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase ligation of Fas (CD95), a receptor important for regulation of programmed cell death. Glutathionylation of reactive cysteines represents an oxidative modification that can be reversed by glutaredoxins (Grxs). The goal of this study was to determine whether Fas is redox regulated under physiological conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that stimulation with Fas ligand (FasL) induces S-glutathionylation of Fas at cysteine 294 independently of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase–induced ROS. Instead, Fas is S-glutathionylated after caspase-dependent degradation of Grx1, increasing subsequent caspase activation and apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of Grx1 attenuates S-glutathionylation of Fas and partially protects against FasL-induced apoptosis. Redox-mediated Fas modification promotes its aggregation and recruitment into lipid rafts and enhances binding of FasL. As a result, death-inducing signaling complex formation is also increased, and subsequent activation of caspase-8 and -3 is augmented. These results define a novel redox-based mechanism to propagate Fas-dependent apoptosis

    Regulation of neovascularization by S-glutathionylation via the Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway

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    S-glutathionylation occurs when reactive oxygen or nitrogen species react with protein-cysteine thiols. Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme which enzymatically catalyses the reduction in S-glutathionylation, conferring reversible signalling function to proteins with redox-sensitive thiols. Glrx can regulate vascular hypertrophy and inflammation by regulating the activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and actin polymerization. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration is inhibited by Glrx overexpression. In mice overexpressing Glrx, blood flow recovery, exercise function and capillary density were significantly attenuated after hindlimb ischaemia (HLI). Wnt5a and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were enhanced in the ischaemic-limb muscle and plasma respectively from Glrx transgenic (TG) mice. A Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway had been described in myeloid cells controlling retinal blood vessel development. Interestingly, a Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway was found also to play a role in EC to inhibit network formation. S-glutathionylation of NF-κB components inhibits its activation. Up-regulated Glrx stimulated the Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway through enhancing NF-κB signalling. These studies show a novel role for Glrx in post-ischaemic neovascularization, which could define a potential target for therapy of impaired angiogenesis in pathological conditions including diabetes

    Glutaredoxin-1 up-regulation induces soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, attenuating post-ischemia limb revascularization

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    Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme that regulates diverse cellular function by removal of GSH adducts from S-glutathionylated proteins including signaling molecules and transcription factors. Glrx is up-regulated during inflammation and diabetes. Glrx overexpression inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration. The aim was to investigate the role of up-regulated Glrx in EC angiogenic capacities and in vivo revascularization in the setting of hind limb ischemia. Glrx overexpressing EC from Glrx transgenic mice (TG) showed impaired migration and network formation and secreted higher level of soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt), an antagonizing factor to VEGF. After hind limb ischemia surgery Glrx TG mice demonstrated impaired blood flow recovery, associated with lower capillary density and poorer limb motor function compared to wild type littermates. There were also higher levels of anti-angiogenic sFlt expression in the muscle and plasma of Glrx TG mice after surgery. Non-canonical Wnt5a is known to induce sFlt. Wnt5a was highly expressed in ischemic muscles and EC from Glrx TG mice, and exogenous Wnt5a induced sFlt expression and inhibited network formation in human microvascular EC. Adenoviral Glrx-induced sFlt in EC was inhibited by a competitive Wnt5a inhibitor. Furthermore, Glrx overexpression removed GSH adducts on p65 in ischemic muscle and EC, and enhanced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activity which was responsible for Wnt5a-sFlt induction. Taken together, up-regulated Glrx induces sFlt in EC via NF-kB -dependent Wnt5a, resulting in attenuated revascularization in hind limb ischemia. The Glrx-induced sFlt may be a part of mechanism of redox regulated VEGF signaling

    Redox regulation of ischemic limb neovascularization - What we have learned from animal studies

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    Mouse hindlimb ischemia has been widely used as a model to study peripheral artery disease. Genetic modulation of the enzymatic source of oxidants or components of the antioxidant system reveal that physiological levels of oxidants are essential to promote the process of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis after femoral artery occlusion, although mice with diabetes or atherosclerosis may have higher deleterious levels of oxidants. Therefore, fine control of oxidants is required to stimulate vascularization in the limb muscle. Oxidants transduce cellular signaling through oxidative modifications of redox sensitive cysteine thiols. Of particular importance, the reversible modification with abundant glutathione, called S-glutathionylation (or GSH adducts), is relatively stable and alters protein function including signaling, transcription, and cytoskeletal arrangement. Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is an enzyme which catalyzes reversal of GSH adducts, and does not scavenge oxidants itself. Glrx may control redox signaling under fluctuation of oxidants levels. In ischemic muscle increased GSH adducts through Glrx deletion improves in vivo limb revascularization, indicating endogenous Glrx has anti-angiogenic roles. In accordance, Glrx overexpression attenuates VEGF signaling in vitro and ischemic vascularization in vivo. There are several Glrx targets including HIF-1α which may contribute to inhibition of vascularization by reducing GSH adducts. These animal studies provide a caution that excess antioxidants may be counter-productive for treatment of ischemic limbs, and highlights Glrx as a potential therapeutic target to improve ischemic limb vascularization

    Strategies to decrease ongoing oxidant burden in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally, and its development is mainly associated with tobacco/biomass smoke-induced oxidative stress. Hence, targeting systemic and local oxidative stress with agents that can balance the antioxidant/redox system can be expected to be useful in the treatment of COPD. Preclinical and clinical trials have revealed that antioxidants/redox modulators can detoxify free radicals and oxidants, control expression of redox and glutathione biosynthesis genes, chromatin remodeling and inflammatory gene expression; and are especially useful in preventing COPD exacerbations. In this review, various novel approaches and problems associated with these approaches in COPD are reviewed

    Positive Blood Culture Results After Plasmodium falciparum

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