83 research outputs found

    Levels of actigraphy-derived physical activity among Polish nurses: factors associated with the prevalence of selected metabolic disorders

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    Numerous studies demonstrate a relationship between physical activity and the development of non-communicable diseases. Nurses play a crucial role in the healthcare system, and their demanding work can have an impact on their health. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess physical activity in relation to factors predisposing to the occurrence of specific metabolic disorders among Polish nurses. The measurements included physical activity level using ActiGraph GT3X, body weight composition using Tanita MC-980, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure using Welch Allyn 4200B, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose using CardioChek PA. The results indicate that nearly one-third (31.75%) of the total sample of studied nurses do not meet the criteria for the minimum amount of physical activity of at least moderate intensity. Furthermore, over half of the surveyed nurses (55.5%) were classified as overweight or obese based on BMI, and almost half (42.86%) had abdominal obesity. The regression model, employing linear regression, revealed that factors predisposing to selected metabolic disorders were age, engaging in multiple jobs, and the number of steps per day. There is a pressing need to implement comprehensive and supportive initiatives to improve the overall health condition of nurses in Poland through increased physical activity. Activating and supporting this professional group is an investment that benefits not only the nurses themselves but also the healthcare system and the entire nation

    Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is a new player in Brassica napusBrassica\ napus L. seed development

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    International audienceRapeseed oil, constituting 12% of global vegetable oil production, is susceptible to quality degradation due to stress-induced incomplete seed degreening, fatty acid oxidation, or poor nutrient accumulation. We hypothesise that the hyperphosphorylated nucleotide alarmone ppGpp (guanosine tetraphosphate), acts as a pivotal regulator of these processes, given its established roles in nutrient management, degreening, and ROS regulation in leaves. Using qPCR, UHPLC-MS/MS, and biochemical methods, our study delves into the impact of ppGpp on seed nutritional value. We observed a positive correlation between ppGpp levels and desiccation, and a negative correlation with photosynthetic pigment levels. Trends in antioxidant activity suggest that ppGpp may negatively influence peroxidases, thereby safeguarding against chlorophyll decomposition. Notably, despite increasing ppGpp levels, sugars, proteins and oils appear unaffected. This newfound role of ppGpp in seed development suggests it regulates the endogenous antioxidant system during degreening and desiccation, preserving nutritional quality. Further validation through mutant-based research is needed

    Diversity Patterns of Macrofungi in Xerothermic Grasslands from the Nida Basin (Małopolska Upland, Southern Poland): A Case Study

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    Macrofungal communities were investigated in seven plant associations of xerothermic grasslands in the Nida Basin located in the Małopolska Upland of southern Poland. Designation of associations at selected study sites was based on phytosociological relevés using the Braun-Blanquet method. During the years 2010–2013, we studied the diversity and distribution of macrofungi in dry grasslands, where 164 species of basidio- and ascomycetes were recovered. We determined the properties of the studied fungal communities and habitat preferences of individual species found in the analyzed xerothermic plant associations using ecological indicators for macrofungi according to Ellenberg indicator values. Diversity patterns of fungal communities in xerothermic grasslands are strongly influenced by various environmental factors. In our study, we focused on recording the fruiting bodies of all macrofungi and the proportion of each species in the study communities, as well as possible identification of the most likely indicator species for particular habitats. We found significant differences for two of the seven associations analyzed, namely Thalictro-Salvietum pratensis and Inuletum ensifoliae. However, based on Ellenberg indicator values for fungi, it is not possible to clearly define fungi as indicator species

    High-Fat or High-Carbohydrate Meal—Does It Affect the Metabolism of Men with Excess Body Weight?

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    Excessive adipose tissue in the body may lead to adverse health effects, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a standardized high-fat meal (HF) on changes in energy expenditure and changes in the oxidation of energy substrates as well as the concentration of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and homocysteine in blood serum in relation to a standardized high-carbohydrate (non-fat, HC) meal in men with different nutritional status. In this study, 26 men (aged 19–60) without carbohydrate disorders (study group GS = 13 overweight/obese; control group GC = 13 normal body weight) were examined. It was observed that following a high-fat or high-carbohydrate meal, men with excessive body weight metabolized the main nutrients differently than men with normal body weight, and postprandial insulin secretion was also different (even without any significant differences in glucose concentrations). Overweight/obesity, which is in itself a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributes to an increase in the concentration of other risk factors, such as the concentration of homocysteine and triglycerides, which is referred to as cardiometabolic risk. Consumption of a high-fat meal increased the number of potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease (homocysteine and triglycerides) compared to a high-carbohydrate meal

    The Beneficial Effect of Cinnamon and Red Capsicum Intake on Postprandial Changes in Plasma Metabolites Evoked by a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Men with Overweight/Obesity

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    The relationship of high-carbohydrate (HC) meal intake to metabolic syndrome is still not fully explained. Metabolomics has the potential to indicate metabolic pathways altered by HC meals, which may improve our knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which HC meals may contribute to metabolic syndrome development. The fasting and postprandial metabolic response to HC or normo-carbohydrate (NC) meals with/without cinnamon + capsicum intake was evaluated using untargeted metabolomics and compared between normal-weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) healthy men. Healthy male participants (age-matched) were divided into two groups (12 subjects per group). One was composed of men with normal weight (NW) and the other of men with overweight/obesity (OW/OB). On separate visits (with 2ÔÇô3 week intervals), the participants received standardized HC or NC meals (89% or 45% carbohydrates, respectively). Fasting (0 min) and postprandial (30, 60, 120, 180 min) blood were collected for untargeted plasma metabolomics. Based on each metabolic featureÔÇÖs intensity change in time, the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Obtained AUCs were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Several metabolic pathways were found dysregulated after an HC meal in people from the OW/OB group but not the NW group. The consumption of HC meals by people with overweight/obesity led to a substantial increase in AUC, mainly for metabolites belonging to phospholipids and fatty acid amides. The opposite was observed for selected sphingolipids. The intake of cinnamon and capsicum normalized the concentration of selected altered metabolites induced by the intake of HC meals. A HC meal may induce an unfavourable postprandial metabolic response in individuals with overweight/obesity, and such persons should avoid HC meals

    Dietary Fiber Intake May Influence the Impact of FTO Genetic Variants on Obesity Parameters and Lipid ProfileÔÇöA Cohort Study of a Caucasian Population of Polish Origin

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    Genetic and environmental factors play a key role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to explore the potential effect of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs3751812, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs6499640, rs8044769, and rs7190492 genotypes and dietary fiber intake on the obesity-related parameters and lipid profile in the Polish population. We selected 819 Polish Caucasian adult subjects (52.5% female and 47.5% male) for a final geneÔÇôdiet interaction analysis, with mean BMI 28.5 (┬▒6.6) kg/m2. We performed measurements of anthropometric parameters, total body fat content and distribution, and blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations. Daily fiber intake was analyzed based on 3-day food-intake diaries, and daily physical activity was evaluated based on the International Physical Activity QuestionnaireÔÇöLong Form. Our study shows that carriers of the GG genotype (rs3751812), CC genotype (rs8050136), and GG genotype (rs6499640) presented lower hip circumference if daily fiber intake was above 18 g per day. Additionally, GG genotype (rs3751812) and CC genotype (rs8050136) carriers showed surprisingly higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels when they were stratified to the group with higher than median fiber intake. The results of this study highlight that high-fiber diets may positively affect anthropometric parameters but may also worsen lipid profile dependent on the FTO genotype

    Dietary Macronutrient Intake May Influence the Effects of TCF7L2 rs7901695 Genetic Variants on Glucose Homeostasis and Obesity-Related Parameters: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

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    Transcription factor-7ÔÇôlike 2 (TCF7L2) is one of the most important susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of our cross-sectional population-based study was to analyze whether daily macronutrient intake may influence the effects of the TCF7L2 rs7901695 genotype on glucose homeostasis and obesity-related parameters. We recruited 810 participants (47.5% men and 52.5% women), 18ÔÇô79 years old (mean age, 42.1 (┬▒14.5) years), who were genotyped for the common TCF7L2 rs7901695 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and anthropometric measurements, body composition, body fat distribution (visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) content), blood glucose and insulin concentrations after fasting and during OGTTs, and HbA1c were assessed. The VAT/SAT ratio, HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), HOMA-B (homeostatic model assessment of ╬▓-cell function), and CIR30 (corrected insulin response) were calculated. The daily macronutrient intake was evaluated based on 3-day food-intake diaries. Daily physical activity was evaluated based on a validated questionnaire. We performed ANOVA or KruskalÔÇôWallis tests, and multivariate linear regression models were created to evaluate the effects of dietary macronutrient intake on glucose homeostasis and obesity-related parameters in carriers of the investigated genotypes. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03792685. The TT-genotype carriers stratified to the upper protein intake quantiles presented higher HbA1c levels than the CT- and CC-genotype participants in the same quantiles (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). Moreover, we observed higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.014), as well as significantly higher blood glucose and insulin concentrations, during the OGTTs for those in the upper quantiles, when compared to subjects from the lower quantiles of protein intake, while the CC-genotype carriers presented significantly lower HbA1c (p = 0.033) and significantly higher CIR30 (p = 0.03). The linear regression models revealed that an increase in energy derived from proteins in TT carriers was associated with higher HbA1c levels (╬▓ = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.01ÔÇô0.74, p = 0.05)), although, in general, carrying the TT genotype, but without considering protein intake, showed an opposite tendencyÔÇöto lower HbA1c levels (╬▓ = Ôłĺ0.22 (95% CI: 0.47 to Ôłĺ0.01, p = 0.05). Among the subjects stratified to the lower quantile of carbohydrate intake, the TT-genotype individuals presented higher HbA1c (p = 0.041), and the CC-genotype subjects presented higher VAT (p = 0.033), lower SAT (p = 0.033), and higher VAT/SAT ratios (p = 0.034). In both the CC- and TT-genotype carriers, we noted higher VAT (p = 0.012 and p = 0.0006, respectively), lower SAT (p = 0.012 and p = 0.0006, respectively) and higher VAT/SAT ratios (p = 0.016 and p = 0.00062, respectively) when dietary fat provided more than 30% of total daily energy intake, without any differences in total body fat content. Our findings suggest that associations of the common TCF7L2 SNP with glucose homeostasis and obesity-related parameters may be dependent on daily macronutrient intake, which warrants further investigations in a larger population, as well as interventional studies

    Effects of traumatic life events, cognitive biases and variation in dopaminergic genes on psychosis proneness

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    Aims: Recent studies have provided evidence that interactions between variation in dopaminergic genes and stressful experiences might impact risk of psychosis. However, it remains unknown whether these interactions impact the development of subclinical symptoms, including psychoticÔÇÉlike experiences (PLEs). In this study, we aimed to test the effects of interactions between variation in dopaminergic genes and traumatic life events (TLEs) on a severity of PLEs. Methods: We assessed TLEs, cognitive biases, PLEs as well as the catecholÔÇÉOÔÇÉmethyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) rs6277 gene polymorphisms in 445 university students at three urban areas. Results: There was a significant effect of the interaction between the COMT rs4680 and a history of any type of TLEs on a severity of PLEs. Among the COMT rs4680 Met allele carriers, a severity of PLEs was higher in individuals with a history of any type of TLEs. Further stratification of the sample revealed that this effect appears only in the group of participants with a high level of cognitive biases. The DRD2 rs6277 C allele was independently associated with a higher level of PLEs. Conclusions: Our results indicate that decreased dopamine catabolism related to the COMT gene polymorphism might increase psychosis proneness in individuals with a history of TLEs and high levels of cognitive biases. Variation in the DRD2 gene might exert independent effects on psychosis proneness. These findings imply that there are various levels of complexity in the models of interactions between genetic and environmental factors explaining the mechanisms underlying psychosis proneness

    An Association between Diet and MC4R Genetic Polymorphism, in Relation to Obesity and Metabolic ParametersÔÇöA Cross Sectional Population-Based Study

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    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene harbours one of the strongest susceptibility loci for obesity and obesity-related metabolic consequences. We analysed whether dietary factors may attenuate the associations between MC4R genotypes and obesity and metabolic parameters. In 819 participants genotyped for common MC4R polymorphisms (rs17782313, rs12970134, rs633265, and rs135034), the anthropometric measurements, body fat content and distribution (visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT, respectively), and blood glucose, insulin, total-, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides concentrations, and daily macronutrient intake were assessed. ANOVA or KruskalÔÇôWallis tests were used, and multivariate linear regression models were developed. We observed that the CC genotype carriers (rs17782313) presented higher VAT, VAT/SAT ratio, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations when they were stratified to the upper quantiles of protein intake. An increase in energy derived from proteins was associated with higher BMI (Est. 5.74, R2 = 0.12), body fat content (Est. 8.44, R2 = 0.82), VAT (Est. 32.59, R2 = 0.06), and VAT/SAT ratio (Est. 0.96, R2 = 0.05). The AA genotype carriers (rs12970134) presented higher BMI, body fat, SAT and VAT, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations. An increase in energy derived from proteins by AA carriers was associated with higher VAT (Est.19.95, R2 = 0.06) and VAT/SAT ratio (Est. 0.64, R2 = 0.05). Our findings suggest that associations of the common MC4R SNPs with obesity and its metabolic complications may be dependent on the daily dietary intake, which may open new areas for developing personalised diets for preventing and treating obesity and obesity-related comorbidities
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