209,374 research outputs found

    Réguler les pluralités religieuses : mondes indiens et chinois comparés

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    La comparaison directe entre les mondes religieux chinois et indien a rarement été conduite. C’est un paradoxe, car l’une des caractéristiques fondamentales communes aux sociétés indienne et chinoise est la cohabitation très ancienne de toutes les formes de religion : cultes médiumniques, de possession et de guérison ; cultes sacrificiels à des divinités locales ; cultes des ancêtres ou des défunts ; traditions ascétiques, monastiques ou spirituelles ; institutions religieuses supra-locales de type « Église », structurées et reconnues par l’État ; mouvements de réforme religieuse modernes et contemporains, certains nationalistes, d’autres universalistes. Ces traits communs ne doivent pourtant pas dissimuler la profondeur des écarts : d’un monde à l’autre, les modalités de division du travail religieux diffèrent autant que les modes de régulation des pratiques religieuses par l’État. C’est à ce travail de comparaison que s’attachent historiens et anthropologues réunis dans le dossier thématique « Réguler les pluralités religieuses. Mondes indiens et chinois comparés ». Le dossier est suivi de deux « varias », l’un sur la gestion par Rome des abus sexuels du clergé entre 1916 et 1939, l’autre sur les enjeux de la « marche d’Arba‘īn » dans l’Iran contemporain. Enfin, Wiktor Stoczkowski répond à la controverse ouverte dans la revue sur son dernier livre, La science sociale comme vision du monde. Émile Durkheim et le mirage du salut (Gallimard, 2019). The direct comparison between the Chinese and Indian religious worlds has rarely been conducted. This is a paradox, because one of the fundamental characteristics common to both Indian and Chinese societies is the very ancient cohabitation of all forms of religion: mediumistic, possession and healing cults; sacrificial cults to local deities; cults of the ancestors or the dead; ascetic, monastic or spiritual traditions; supra-local religious institutions of the “Church” type, structured and recognised by the state; modern and contemporary religious reform movements, some nationalist, some universalist. These common features should not, however, conceal the depth of the differences: from one world to another, the modalities of the division of religious labour differ as much as the modes of regulation of religious practices by the state. It is this comparative work that historians and anthropologists have brought together in the thematic dossier "Regulating Religious Pluralism. Indian and Chinese Worlds Compared". The dossier is followed by two varia, one on the management by Rome of sexual abuse by the clergy between 1916 and 1939, the other on the issues at stake in the “Arba‘īn march” in contemporary Iran. Lastly, Wiktor Stoczkowski responds to the controversy opened in our journal on his latest book, La science sociale comme vision du monde. Émile Durkheim et le mirage du salut (Gallimard, 2019). Rara vez se ha hecho una comparación directa entre los mundos religiosos chino e indio. Se trata de una paradoja, ya que una de las características fundamentales comunes a las sociedades india y china es la cohabitación muy antigua de todas las formas de religión: cultos mediúmnicos, de posesión y de curación; cultos de sacrificio a las divinidades locales; cultos a los antepasados o a los muertos; tradiciones ascéticas, monásticas o espirituales; instituciones religiosas supralocales de tipo "Iglesia", estructuradas y reconocidas por el Estado; movimientos modernos y contemporáneos de reforma religiosa, algunos nacionalistas, otros universalistas. Sin embargo, estos rasgos comunes no deben ocultar la profundidad de las diferencias: de un mundo a otro, las modalidades de reparto del trabajo religioso difieren tanto como los modos de regulación de las prácticas religiosas por parte del Estado. Es este trabajo comparativo el que historiadores y antropólogos han reunido en el dossier temático "Regulación del pluralismo religioso: comparación de los mundos indio y chino". El dossier va seguido de dos "varias", uno sobre la gestión de Roma de los abusos sexuales por parte del clero entre 1916 y 1939, el otro sobre las apuestas de la "marcha Arba‘īn" en el Irán contemporáneo. Por último, Wiktor Stoczkowski responde a la polémica abierta en la revista sobre su último libro, La science sociale comme vision du monde. Émile Durkheim et le mirage du salut (Gallimard, 2019). Un confronto diretto tra il mondo religioso cinese e quello indiano è stato condotto raramente. Si tratta di un paradosso, perché una delle caratteristiche fondamentali comuni alle società indiana e cinese è l'antichissima convivenza di tutte le forme di religione: culti medianici, di possessione e di guarigione; culti sacrificali a divinità locali; culti degli antenati o dei morti; tradizioni ascetiche, monastiche o spirituali; istituzioni religiose sovralocali di tipo "Chiesa", strutturate e riconosciute dallo Stato; movimenti di riforma religiosa moderni e contemporanei, alcuni nazionalisti, altri universalisti. Questi tratti comuni non devono però nascondere la profondità delle differenze: da un mondo all'altro, le modalità di divisione del lavoro religioso differiscono tanto quanto le modalità di regolamentazione delle pratiche religiose da parte dello Stato. È questo lavoro comparativo che gli storici e gli antropologi hanno riunito nel dossier tematico "Regolare il pluralismo religioso: mondi indiani e cinesi a confronto". Il dossier è seguito da due "varia", uno sulla gestione da parte di Roma degli abusi sessuali del clero tra il 1916 e il 1939, l'altro sulla posta in gioco della "marcia dell'Arba‘īn" nell'Iran contemporaneo. Infine, Wiktor Stoczkowski risponde alla polemica aperta nella rivista sul suo ultimo libro, La science sociale comme vision du monde. Émile Durkheim et le mirage du salut (Gallimard, 2019)

    Ritual Terroir

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    The French term "terroir" has entered the English language carrying more or less the same viticultural and culinary references. Despite its close English-language cousin "terrain" and "territory", terroir is a lot more than things having to do with the earth. It is a particular and dynamic "compositional assemblage" (Chau, 2012) of all elements that contribute to the unique qualities of a product (be it wine, foie gras or mushroom): climate, weather, topography, soil, precipitation, drainage, exposure to sunlight (duration, direction, intensity, etc.), disasters, ecology (including flora and fauna), human intervention (e.g. irrigation, fertilisers, weeding, introduction of cultivar and other bio-elements, fermentation and other procedures, craftsmanship and handling), etc. The deliberate, modern-day construction and privileging of terroir is a reaction against "soulless" mass production, against food and drink with no traceable origin because they have been industrially produced (with the help of globally-produced chemical fertilisers and feed), mixed and packaged. I propose to look at the production of power-laden religious sites through the lens of "ritual terroir", using examples from Chinese religious practices (drawn from my own fieldwork). Just like food and drink, some religious practices are extremely translocalisable and, even as they are always adapted to specific local conditions as they spread across the globe (e.g. Zen Buddhism, evangelical Christianity, Tibetan Buddhism, post-colonial and post-Cold-War Islam), many thrive precisely because of a delinking between the practices and any particular site or terroir. On the other hand, some other religious practices are resolutely spatially grounded in the production of specific religious sites and draw spiritual power from these sites. I will present the case of the Dragon King Valley (Longwanggou) in northcentral China to illustrate the workings of ritual terroir. Like all local cults, the reputation and efficacy of the Black Dragon King depend on an ensemble of site-specific features that combine geographical and human input.Le terme français « terroir » est entré dans la langue anglaise en s’appliquant à peu près aux mêmes références viticoles et culinaires. Malgré ses proches cousins anglais terrain et territory, « terroir » signifie bien davantage que le seul rapport à une « terre ». C’est un « assemblage » original et dynamique, composé de tous les éléments qui contribuent aux qualités uniques d’un produit (vin, foie gras ou champignons) : climat, météorologie, topographie, sol, précipitations, drainage, ensoleillement, sinistres, environnement (flore et faune), interventions humaines telles l’irrigation, l’usage d’engrais, le désherbage, l’introduction de cultivars et autres bio-éléments, la fermentation et autres procédures de bonification, la fabrication et la manutention, etc. Construction intentionnelle et moderne, le « terroir » s’inscrit en réaction contre une production de masse jugée « sans âme », contre des aliments et des boissons sans traçabilité d’origine parce qu’ils sont produits à l’échelle globale, à l’aide d’engrais chimiques ou d’aliments industriels, puis mélangés et conditionnés. Je propose d’étudier la fabrique de sites religieux à forte intensité à travers le prisme du « terroir rituel », à partir d’exemples de pratiques religieuses chinoises tirées de mon propre travail de terrain. Tout comme la nourriture et les boissons, certaines pratiques religieuses sont très faciles à transposer d’un lieu à l’autre et, en dépit de leur capacité à s’adapter à des conditions locales, leur prospérité mondiale (qu’il s’agisse du bouddhisme zen, du christianisme évangélique, du bouddhisme tibétain, de l’islam postcolonial et post-guerre froide) repose précisément sur la déconnexion entre ces pratiques et leur site ou leur terroir d’origine. À l’inverse, certaines pratiques religieuses s’enracinent de manière décisive dans l’espace de sites religieux spécifiques dont elles tirent leur puissance spirituelle. J’analyse ici le cas exemplaire de la Vallée du Roi Dragon (Longwanggou), au centre-nord de la Chine, pour illustrer ce travail du terroir rituel. Comme tous les cultes locaux, la réputation et l’efficacité du Roi Dragon dépendent d’un ensemble de caractéristiques, tout à la fois géographiques et humaines, spécifiques à ce site.El término francés "terroir" entró en el idioma inglés aplicando aproximadamente las mismas referencias culinarias y viticolas. A pesar de sus primos cercanos terreno y territorio inglés, "terroir" significa mucho más que una simple relación con "tierra". Se trata de una "mezcla" original y dinámica de todos los elementos que contribuyen a las cualidades únicas de un producto, vino, foie gras o setas: clima, meteorología, topografía, suelo, precipitación, drenaje, insolación, desastres, medio ambiente (flora y fauna), intervenciones humanas como riego, uso de fertilizantes, deshierbe, introducción de cultivares y otros bioelementos, fermentación y otros procedimientos de mejora, fabricación y manipulación, etc. De construcción intencional y moderna, el "terruño" es parte de una reacción contra la producción en masa considerada "sin alma", contra alimentos y bebidas sin trazabilidad de origen porque se producen a escala global, utilizando fertilizantes químicos o piensos industriales , luego mezclados y empaquetados. Propongo estudiar la creación de sitios religiosos intensivos a través del prisma de la "tierra ritual", utilizando ejemplos de prácticas religiosas chinas extraídas de mi propio trabajo de terreno. Al igual que la comida y la bebida, algunas prácticas religiosas son muy fáciles de trasladar de un lugar a otro y, a pesar de su capacidad para adaptarse a las condiciones locales, su prosperidad global (ya sea budismo zen, cristianismo evangélico, budismo tibetano, poscolonial y posguerra fría) se basa precisamente en la desconexión entre estas prácticas y su sitio o tierra de origen. Por el contrario, algunas prácticas religiosas están enraizadas decisivamente en el espacio de sitios religiosos específicos de los que derivan su poder espiritual. Analizo aquí el caso ejemplar del Valle del Rey Dragón Negro (Longwanggou), en el centro-norte de China, para ilustrar este trabajo ritual de la tierra. Como todos los cultos locales, la reputación y la eficacia del Rey Dragón Negro dependen de un conjunto de características, tanto geográficas como humanas, específicas de este sitio

    L’apiculture, entre naturalisme et productivisme ? 

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    L’engouement pour le sort des abeilles serait-il en train de transformer l’image et le statut de l’apiculture ? Les discours autour de l’abeille domestique déployés dans les médias et exprimés parfois dans les programmes de développement de l’apiculture révèlent selon nous une tension entre une vision naturaliste et une vision productiviste. À partir de l’étude des apicultures corse et du Souss (Maroc) nous mettons au jour la diversité des formes d’organisation sociotechnique et des manières de produire des miels. Nous montrons que ces pôles naturalistes et productivistes ne s’expriment pas clairement dans l’activité apicole elle-même. Enfin, nous discutons cette tension au regard de la notion d’écologisation et de l’importance du cadre territorial dans lequel s’exerce l’activité apicole, afin de se dégager d’une vision générique et polarisée.The image and status of beekeeping is being transformed due to the worldwide enthusiasm for honeybees and concern for their future in our changing world. Yet media discussions about honeybees reveal a tension between naturalist and productivist visions of beekeeping, a tension also found in beekeeping development programs. While illustrating how diverse honey production and its socio-technical organization are, our study of Corsica (France) and Souss (Morocco) show that the naturalist/productivist polarization does not transpire in beekeeping itself. Finally, we discuss this tension in the light of ecologization and the importance of the territorial framework in which beekeeping is conducted, which provides a way of moving beyond a generic and polarized vision

    Dark Triad Traits, Social Position, and Personality: A Cross-Cultural Study

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    This research explores the Dark Triad traits in 18 cultures from Europe, America, Africa, and Asia. We examined the relationships among Dark Triad traits, as measured by the SD3, with gender, age, social status, and two personality models, HEXACO and Zuckerman’s alternative five factor model (AFFM). There were 10,298 participants (5,410 women and 4,888 men) with a mean age of 40.31 (SD =17.32) years old. Between 6% and 16% of the variance in the Dark Triad traits was accounted by culture. Men scored higher than women on all three traits in most cultures, but gender differences were generally larger in European countries. The relationship between the Dark Triad traits dimensions and age is negative, but the largest effect size is small (Psychopathy; η 2 =.018). Psychopathy is associated with low Social Position, and Narcissism with high Social Position. In regard to Personality traits, Narcissism is positively related to Extraversion, and Psychopathy is negatively related to Conscientiousness for the HEXACO, and Narcissism is positively related to Activity and Sensation Seeking, and Machiavellianism and Psychopathy are positively related to Aggressiveness and Sensation Seeking for the AFFM

    Implications of using different metrics for niche analysis in ecological communities

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    Explaining the mechanisms driving niche partitioning among species is of great importance in ecology. Unlike the fundamental niche, a species' realised niche can only be measured in situ, as a result of biotic and abiotic interactions defining its size. Following current methodology, the realised niche of a species is often influenced by the rare and divergent individuals of the community sampled. In this study, using fish on coral and temperate reefs as an example, behavioural empirical data were collected to estimate realised niche sizes and niche overlaps. Niche measurements were made using the total area of the convex hull (TA), but as an alternative, a metric not as strongly influenced by sample size, standard ellipse area (SEA), was also used. A comprehensive description is given, and context-dependent pros and cons of using both metrics are discussed. Additionally, an alternative sample size correction was presented for both metrics. The analyses revealed large differences in the sizes of realised niches and their overlaps between species depending on the measurement metric used. Regardless of the species, niche size and overlap were always larger for TA than SEA. Increasing sample size reduced niche size variability for both TA and SEA, but the variation was always smaller for SEA than TA. We successfully adapted the SEA metric for analysis of behavioural niche components and demonstrated that measuring niche sizes using the 2 metrics, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, can produce contradictory results, the ecological consequences of which are likely to be important

    Continuous Motion in Physics VIII 8

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    The note discusses Aristotle's arguments concerning continuity of circular motion and shows that, first, they are philosophical in nature and, second, continuity of rectilinear motion can be proven in Aristotelian physics

    The Mid-Upper Arm Circumference as a Substitute for Body Mass Index in the Assessment of Nutritional Status among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    To compare mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) with body mass index (BMI) and propose MUAC cut-off points corresponding to BMIs of 2 (underweight) and ≥30.0 kg/m2 (obesity) for pregnant Sudanese women, a cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in the city of New Halfa, Sudan. Healthy pregnant women were recruited. Body parameters such as height, weight, and MUAC were measured. The MUAC (cm) cut-off values for underweight and obesity were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Of 688 pregnant women, 437 were in early pregnancy (r = 0.734) and late pregnancy (r = 0.703). The cut-off points of MUAC for detecting underweight and obesity were found to be 24.0 cm and 29.0 cm, respectively, for women in early pregnancy, with good predictive values. For women in late pregnancy, the cut-off points for detecting underweight and obesity were 23.0 cm and 28.0 cm, respectively. We concluded that for Sudanese pregnant women, the MUAC cut-off points identified in the study for diagnosing underweight and obesity are both sensitive and specific

    The physiological and morphological benefits of shadowboxing

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    Is shadowboxing an effective form of functional exercise? What physiological and morphological changes result from an exercise program based exclusively on shadowboxing for 3 weeks? To date, no empirical research has focused specifically on addressing these questions. Since mixed martial arts (MMA) is the fastest growing sport in the world, and since boxing and kickboxing fitness classes are among the most popular in gyms and fitness clubs worldwide, the lack of research on shadowboxing and martial arts-based fitness programs in the extant literature is a shortcoming that the present article aims to address. This case study involved a previously sedentary individual engaging in an exercise program based exclusively on shadowboxing for 3 weeks. Body composition and heart rate data were collected before, throughout, and upon completion of the 3-week exercise program to determine the effectiveness of shadowboxing for functional fitness purposes. An original shadowboxing program prepared by an Everlast Master Instructor and NASM Certified Personal Trainer (NASM-CPT) and Performance Enhancement Specialist (NASM-PES) was used for this 3-week period. The original shadowboxing program with goals, techniques, and combinations to work on throughout the 3-week program is included in this article. This case study demonstrates that a 3-week exercise program based exclusively on shadowboxing can increase aerobic capacity, muscle mass, bone mass, basal metabolic rate, and daily calorie intake, and decrease resting heart rate, fat mass, body fat percentage, and visceral fat rating in a previously sedentary individual. The results of this research demonstrate that shadowboxing can be a safe and effective form of exercise leading to morphological and physiological improvements including fat loss and increased aerobic capacity. The results of this research also demonstrate that the Tanita BC-1500 is a reliable tool for individuals to evaluate their own fitness progress over time

    GWGW density matrix to estimate self-consistent GWGW total energy in solids

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    The GWGW approximation is a well-established method for calculating ionization potentials and electron affinities in solids and molecules. For numerous years, obtaining self-consistent GWGW total energies in solids has been a challenging objective that is not accomplished yet. However, it was shown recently that the linearized GWGW density matrix permits a reliable prediction of the self-consistent GWGW total energy for molecules [F. Bruneval et. al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 17, 2126 (2021)] for which self-consistent GWGW energies are available. Here we implement, test, and benchmark the linearized GWGW density matrix for several solids. We focus on the total energy, lattice constant, and bulk modulus obtained from the GWGW density matrix and compare our findings to more traditional results obtained within the random phase approximation (RPA). We conclude on the improved stability of the total energy obtained from the linearized GWGW density matrix with respect to the mean-field starting point. We bring compelling clues that the RPA and the GWGW density matrix total energies are certainly close to the self-consistent GWGW total energy in solids if we use hybrid functionals with enriched exchange as a starting point.Comment: 16 pages, 8 figure
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