85 research outputs found

    Redshift drift in varying speed of light cosmology

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    We derive a redshift drift formula within the framework of varying speed of light (VSL) theory using the specific ansatz for the variability of c(t)=c0an(t)c(t) = c_0 a^n(t). We show that negative values of the parameter nn, which correspond to diminishing value of the speed of light during the evolution of the universe, effectively rescales dust matter to become little negative pressure matter, and the cosmological constant to became phantom. Positive values of nn (growing c(t)c(t)) make VSL model to become more like Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model. Observationally, there is a distinction between the VSL model and the Λ\LambdaCDM model for the admissible values of the parameter n105n \sim - 10^{-5}, though it will be rather difficult to detect by planned extremely large telescopes (E-ELT, TMT, GMT) within their accuracy.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, title and body changed to match a published version on redshift drift onl

    Big-Rip, Sudden Future, and other exotic singularities in the universe

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    We discuss exotic singularities in the evolution of the universe motivated by the progress of observations in cosmology. Among them there are: Big-Rip (BR), Sudden Future Singularities (SFS), Generalized Sudden Future Singularities (GSFS), Finite Density Singularities (FD), type III, and type IV singularities. We relate some of these singularities with higher-order characteristics of expansion such as jerk and snap. We also discuss the behaviour of pointlike objects and classical strings on the approach to these singularities.Comment: 3 pages, MG11 proceedings contributio

    Multiple-criteria Evaluation of Quality of Human Capital in the European Union Countries

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    Successful policies and programs leading to improvement of quality of human capital in the context of knowledge-based economy are currently considered as the basic condition for keeping global competitiveness of the European economy. It has been pointed as one of the most important aims of Europe 2020 strategy. In the EU all the countries are obliged to implement national strategies that should result in reaching that aims. As a result, it is necessary to compare countries’ results, which can be useful for pointing the best practices and effective policy guidelines. Thus, the main aim of the article is to provide a multiple-criteria analysis of the quality of human capital in the EU countries at macroeconomic level. Special attention is given here to the results obtained by new member states of the EU. The research is done for the years 2001-2012. Additionally, it gives some insight on the possible influence of the global financial crisis on the dynamics of the quality of human capital in the EU countries. Data from Eurostat is used. Hellwig’s method of taxonomic measure of development with the constant pattern (ideal solution) for the entire period is applied in the research. The Hellwig’s method is very close to TOPSIS method, which is based on a concept of similarity to ideal solution and which is currently commonly applied in multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM). After obtaining the relative measure for the quality of human capital, the countries were grouped into homogenous subsets with application of natural breaks method. The main advantages of the applied methods are high elasticity and methodological simplicity, which is crucial in the case of multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)

    Europe 2020 Strategy and Structural Diversity Between Old and New Member States. Application of zero-unitarizatin method for dynamic analysis in the years 2004-2013

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    In the year 2015 the European Union has reached the halfway of implementation of Europe 2020 strategy, which is aimed at forming the conditions for sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion. In this context the aim of the paper is to analyze the level of fulfillment its aims with special concentration on diversity between New Member States that joined European Union in 2004 and 2007 (EU-10) and Old European Union Members (EU-15). The empirical part of the paper is based on the taxonomic research with application of zero-unitarization method. In order to make the dynamic analysis for the years 2004-2013 the constant reference point for the whole period was used. The evaluation was based on the Eurostat Europe 2020 indicators. The analysis showed significant diversity between New and Old Member States. However, in the years 2004-2013 EU-10 had made an important progress in the implementation of Europe 2020 strategy

    Institutional Integration in the Sphere of Business Infrastructure in the European Union in the Years 2000-2008

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    Abstract: The last decade has been a period of accelerated integration in Europe. A manifestation of this was the biggest ever enlargement of the EU in 2004. Therefore the aim of this study is an evaluation of integration process in EU in the sphere of economic institutional order. The analysis concentrates on the institutional factors that affects the ability of country to utilize potential of competitive global economy. In this study some taxonomic tools were used - a hierarchical classification procedure (Ward's method with Euclidean and Manhattan distance). The study was based on annual data from the period 2000-2008. It allowed to capture a period of four years before and after the biggest enlargement of the EU. The research problem of this study amounted to the question: whether in the analyzed period can one speak about the process of growing similarities in the sphere of business institutional order for “old†and “new†EU countries? The study confirms existence of integration processes in relation to institutional order. However, it also proves the existence of group of countries that can be described by homogenous institutional factors especially effective in supporting utilization of the potential of competitive global economy