92 research outputs found

    Reconfigurable Axial Ratio in Compact GNSS Antennas

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    A new adaptive technique for steering the direction of minimum axial ratio (AR)

    Simultaneous Rotation and Distance Measurement using Multiband Circularly Polarized Radio Link

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    The paper proposes a method for simultaneous measurement of rotation and distance by using a multi-band circularly polarized radio links. The method is realized using a standard dual-band patch antenna, operating at 1.58 GHz and 2.27 GHz, with respective axial ratios of 1.7 dB and 1.0 dB. Both link distance and antenna rotation were varied from a reference position/orientation from -40 mm to +40 mm and from 0° to 360°, producing a total set of 125 samples. For a noiseless link the distance change and rotation were predicted with respective mean errors of 1.9 mm and 7.3°

    Integration of antennas with sun-tracking solar panels

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    A low-cost solution for antennas integrated into solar cells, allowing their implementation in solar tracking installations is proposed. The proposed passive device autonomously adjusts the phase shift of a two-element array proportional to the panel rotation. Consequently, the main beam is steered to compensate for panel rotation and maintain a radio link. The proposed device operates for a rotation of ±45° with an amplitude variation of ≤0.4 dB at 2.51 GHz

    Directional Modulation for Compact Devices

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    A new directional modulation system which uses radiation pattern data for modulation encoding is proposed. The approach allows compact multiport antennas (e.g. MIMO capable antennas) to be used for directional modulation, replacing extensive arrays. The modulation weighting coefficients are calculated with a fixed, antenna specific equation, thus reducing computational complexity. The solution is intended to enhance privacy in small, battery-operated wireless devices, required for “Internet of Things” applications

    Advanced Circularly Polarised Microstrip Patch Antennas

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    The thesis describes outcomes of research on advanced circularly polarised antennas. The proposed designs are intended for integration into small mobile devices, therefore low profile and easy manufacturability are key parameters, along with good CP radiation properties. The designs were validated by simulation and measurement, and are also backed by theory and design guidelines. The primary focus is on the development of planar omnidirectional circularly polarised antennas, which are fabricated using multilayer PCB techniques and thus are lightweight and cost-efficient. Unlike in classical microstrip patch antenna designs, the groundplane of the proposed antenna was substantially reduced. This helps to achieve an omnidirectional circular polarisation pattern and miniaturize the antenna, however at the cost of increased feed circuit complexity. The basic design, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed in Section 3. In the next step, the omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna was extended with additional, advanced features. A miniaturized version is investigated, which offers a 20% footprint reduction by folding parts of the patch underneath itself. Further miniaturization is possible by increasing the dielectric constant of the substrate. A method to adjust the omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna performance by trimming four lumped capacitors is also investigated. Manufacturing inaccuracy in large scale production may cause some of the units to radiate outside of the desired frequencies. By integrating four trimmed capacitors into the antenna it can be precisely tuned to the desired band. Simulated results demonstrate this property by trimming the antenna between GPS L1 band (centre frequency at 1.575 GHz) and Galileo/Beidou-2 E2 band (1.561 GHz). Furthermore, a dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna is presented, which employs slots and capacitor loading to steer the current path of the first and second resonant mode. The design offers a small frequency ratio of 1.182. The methods to obtain a planar omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna have been further advanced to propose a reconfigurable antenna. The beam reconfiguration is capable of rotating it dipole-like radiation pattern around an axis, thus allowing reception or transmission from any spherical angle. The switching method is simple and does not require any semiconductor devices. Finally, a dual circularly polarised antenna is presented, which achieves dual-polarisation by employing even and odd modes in a coplanar waveguide. This technique allows greater flexibility and size reduction of the feed network, as two signals can be transmitted by a single multi-mode transmission line. Simulated results demonstrate this property by trimming the antenna between GPS L1 band (centre frequency at 1.575 GHz) and Galileo/Beidou-2 E2 band (1.561 GHz). Furthermore, a dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna is presented, which employs slots and capacitor loading to steer the current path of the first and second resonant mode. The design offers a small frequency ratio of 1.182. The methods to obtain a planar omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna have been further advanced to propose a reconfigurable antenna. The beam reconfiguration is capable of rotating it dipole-like radiation pattern around an axis, thus allowing reception or transmission from any spherical angle. The switching method is simple and does not require any semiconductor devices. Finally, a dual circularly polarised antenna is presented, which achieves dual-polarisation by employing even and odd modes in a coplanar waveguide. This technique allows greater flexibility and size reduction of the feed network, as two signals can be transmitted by a single multi-mode transmission line

    Low-cost Multimode Patch Antenna for Dual MIMO and Enhanced Localization Use

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    This paper proposes a simple, low-cost multi-mode patch antenna combining good MIMO performance with precise Angle of Arrival (AoA) estimation. The AoA is based on the monopulse antenna concept, however, unlike in radar applications, the necessity for complex circuitry is replaced by the intrinsic properties of even and odd resonant patch modes. This capability is advantageous for future “Internet of Things” antennas, embedded into low-cost and size-constrained devices. The envelope correlation coefficient, measured in an anechoic chamber, is below 1.5 %, ensuring good MIMO performance. An exemplary addition to localization algorithm exploiting antenna properties is demonstrated

    Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antennas – a Small Antenna Perspective

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    The paper discusses recent developments and challenges in the design of small omnidirectionalcircularly-polarized (CP) antennas. Although omnidirectional CP coverage is easily achievable using antenna arrays, it is just recently that small and low-cost antennas delivered this functionality.The paper addresses practical design problems for these antennas, not reported in previous publications.This includes selection of the omnidirectional plane relative to the ground plane and measurement challenges. Future perspectives on how these antennas can provide electronically steerable beams are investigated using simulated results

    Using Near-Field Coupled Circularly Polarized Antennas as Frequency Independent Variable Phase-Shifters

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    This paper introduces a novel concept of frequency-independent variable phase-shifters. It is based on the use of circularly polarized (CP) antennas coupled in the near-field. For transmission between two CP antennas in the far-field, a rotation around the boresight axis produces a phase change in the transfer function. This concept is exploited and validated also for near-field coupling between two CP antennas. Therefore, two close-coupled CP antennas can act as a adjustable phase-shifter with the phase-shift controlled by the angle between the structures. The bandwidth depends on the CP bandwidth of the antenna. This concept is valuable for future phase-shifters in mm-wave applications where rotation can be facilitated by MEMS elements

    Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna with Post Manufacture Characteristic Refinement

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    We propose an omnidirectional circularly polarised planar microstrip patch antenna, in which both impedance bandwidth and circular polarization properties can be adjusted after antenna manufacture. This is done by appropriately tuning four adjustable capacitors, incorporated into the patches. To demonstrate the properties, the proposed antenna is tuned to the GPS L1 band and then re-tuned for Beidou/Galileo E2 band by only changing capacitors values. Design guidelines for such retuning are provided
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