517 research outputs found

    High country river processes : a technical discussion of results from research on the Kowai River system, Springfield, Canterbury

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    A sub-catchment (Torlesse Stream) of the Kowai River, Canterbury, has been the site of an interdisciplinary study of the relationships between erosion and stream sedimentation (Hayward 1975). It was logical to extend the stream sediment investigation of that study (Hayward 1978) into the Kowai system proper in order to establish changes in the nature and distribution of the stream sediments with distance downstream. The sediment sampling study, comprising Part I of Paper A in this volume, analyses the changes in size, distribution, form and rock type of the river gravels from ahead water mountain stream to the wide braided river beds of the middle reaches of the Kowai River. Part 2 of Paper A discusses the possible implications for the management that these sediment studies have for this and other similar river systems. It is believed that if thought necessary it is possible to design a river training programme to guide the river towards a more manageable pattern. Paper B of this volume compares the results of the present river gravel survey with those from a sedimentological analysis of fluvio-glacial outwash gravels deposited several thousand years ago within the lower reaches of the Kowai system. This comparative study is used to indicate differences in the hydrologic environment prevailing at their respective times of deposition, and aids in our understanding of the processes at work in hill and high country rivers today. Both Papers A and B relate to the Kowai River system, but the authors wish to emphasise that the findings from these studies are believed to have application to other similar gravel bed river systems

    Organizational professionalism in globalizing law firms.

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    Are the challenges of globalization, technology and competition exercising a dramatic impact on professional practice whilst, in the process, compromising traditional notions of professionalism, autonomy and discretion? This paper engages with these debates and uses original, qualitative empirical data to highlight the vast areas of continuity that exist even the largest globalizing law firms. Whilst it is undoubted that growth in the size of firms and their globalization bring new challenges, these are resolved in ways that are sensitive to professional values and interests. In particular, a commitment to professional autonomy and discretion still characterises the way in which these firms operate and organize themselves. This situation is explained in terms of the development of an organizational model of professionalism, whereby the large organization is increasingly emerging as a primary locus of professionalization and whereby professional priorities and objectives are increasingly supported by organizational logics, systems and initiatives

    Effect of somatic mutation on DNA binding properties of anti-DNA autoantibodies

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    Autoantibodies that bind DNA are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus. A subset of autoantibody‱DNA complexes localize to kidney tissue and lead to damage and even death. 11F8, 9F11, and 15B10 are clonally related anti-DNA autoantibodies isolated from an autoimmune mouse. 11F8 binds ssDNA in a sequence-specific manner and causes tissue damage, while 9F11 and 15B10 bind ssDNA non-specifically and are benign. Among these antibodies, DNA binding properties are mediated by five amino acid differences in primary sequence. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters associated with recognition of structurally different DNA sequences were determined for each antibody to provide insight toward recognition strategies, and to explore a link between binding properties and disease pathogenesis. A model of 11F8 bound to its high affinity consensus sequence provides a foundation for understanding the differences in thermodynamic and kinetic parameters between the three mAbs. Our data suggest that 11F8 utilizes the proposed ssDNA recognition motif including Y32 V L , a hydrogen bonding residue at 91 V L , and an aromatic residue at the tip of the third heavy chain complementarity determining region. Interestingly, a somatic mutation to arginine at 31 V H in 11F8 may afford additional binding site contacts including R31 V H , R96 V H , and R98 V H that could determine specificity. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 85: 471–480, 2007. This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The “Published Online” date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at [email protected] Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/55984/1/20691_ftp.pd

    The abolition of the General Teaching Council for England and the future of teacher discipline

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    With the abolition of the General Teaching Council for England in the 2011 Education Act, this article considers the future of teacher discipline in England. It provides a critique of the changes to the regulation of teacher misconduct and incompetence that draws on a Foucauldian framework, especially concerning the issue of public displays of discipline and the concomitant movement to more hidden forms. In addition, the external context of accountability that accompanies the reforms to teacher discipline are considered including the perfection of the panoptic metaphor presented by the changes to Ofsted practices such as the introduction of zero-notice inspections. The article concludes that the reforms will further move teachers from being occupational professionals to being organisational professionals marking them apart from comparable professions in medicine and law

    Systemic ablation of Camkk2 impairs metastatic colonization and improves insulin sensitivity in TRAMP mice : Evidence for cancer cell-extrinsic CAMKK2 functions in prostate cancer

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    Despite early studies linking calcium-calmodulin protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) to prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, the role of CAMKK2 in metastasis in vivo remains unclear. Moreover, while CAMKK2 is known to regulate systemic metabolism, whether CAMKK2’s effects on whole-body metabolism would impact prostate cancer progression and/or related comorbidities is not known. Here, we demonstrate that germline ablation of Camkk2 slows, but does not stop, primary prostate tumorigenesis in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) genetic mouse model. Consistent with prior epidemiological reports supporting a link between obesity and prostate cancer aggressiveness, TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited a pronounced increase in the colonization of lung metastases. We demonstrated that this effect on the metastatic spread was dependent on CAMKK2. Notably, diet-induced lung metastases exhibited a highly aggressive neuroendocrine phenotype. Concurrently, Camkk2 deletion improved insulin sensitivity in the same mice. Histological analyses revealed that cancer cells were smaller in the TRAMP;Camkk2−/− mice compared to TRAMP;Camkk2+/+ controls. Given the differences in circulating insulin levels, a known regulator of cell growth, we hypothesized that systemic CAMKK2 could promote prostate cancer cell growth and disease progression in part through cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms. Accordingly, host deletion of Camkk2 impaired the growth of syngeneic murine prostate tumors in vivo, confirming nonautonomous roles for CAMKK2 in prostate cancer. Cancer cell size and mTOR signaling was diminished in tumors propagated in Camkk2-null mice. Together, these data indicate that, in addition to cancer cell-intrinsic roles, CAMKK2 mediates prostate cancer progression via tumor-extrinsic mechanisms. Further, we propose that CAMKK2 inhibition may also help combat common metabolic comorbidities in men with advanced prostate cancer

    Re-embedding agency at the workplace scale: workers and labour control in Glasgow call centres

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    Following recent calls for the development of a more embedded sense of labour agency, this paper focuses on the scale of the workplace which is largely absent from recent labour geography debates. Drawing on studies in the labour process tradition, the paper presents empirical research on call centre work in Glasgow, utilising this to revisit the concept of local Labour Control Regimes (LCR). We argue that rather than being simply imposed by capital and the state ‘from above’, workplace control should be seen as the product of a dialectical process of interaction and negotiation between management and labour. Labour’s indeterminacy can influence capital in case specific ways as firms adapt to labour agency and selectively tolerate and collude with certain practices and behaviours. Workers’ learned behaviour and identities are shown to affect not only recruitment patterns in unexpected ways, but also modes of accepted conduct in call centres. Accordingly, the case is made for the influence of subtle – yet pervasive – worker agency expressed at the micro-scale of the labour process itself. This, it is argued, exerts a degree of ‘bottom-up’ pressure on key fractions of capital within the local LCR

    Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus to Japanese encephalitis virus; 35710580

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    Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the principal cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in human populations within Asia. If introduced into new geographic areas, it could have further implications for public and animal health. However, potential mosquito vectors for virus transmission have not been fully investigated. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has emerged in Europe and is now expanding its geographical range into more northerly latitudes. Culex quinquefasciatus, although absent from Europe, has been detected in Turkey, a country with territory in Europe, and could act as a vector for JEV in other regions. To assess the risk of these invasive species acting as vectors for JEV and therefore potentially contributing to its geographical expansion, we have investigated the vector competence of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Two colonised lines of Ae. albopictus (Italy and Spain) and a line of Cx. quinquefasciatus (Tanzania) were compared for susceptibility to infection by oral feeding with JEV strain SA-14, genotype III at 106 PFU/ml and maintained at 25 °C. Specimens were processed at 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi). Rates of infection, dissemination and transmission were assessed through detection of viral RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in mosquito body, legs and saliva, respectively, at each time point. Where possible, infection and dissemination were confirmed by immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of the JEV envelope protein. Results: Aedes albopictus from Italy showed no susceptibility to infection with JEV strain SA-14. Conversely, Ae. albopictus colonised in Spain was susceptible and 100% of infected mosquitoes that were subjected to saliva screening expressed viral RNA at 14 dpi. Culex quinquefasciatus was highly susceptible to infection as early as 7 dpi and 50% of infected mosquitoes that were subjected to saliva screening expressed viral RNA at 14 dpi. Infection and dissemination were confirmed in Cx. quinquefasciatus by IHC detection of JEV envelope protein in both the mid-gut and salivary glands. Conclusions: Aedes albopictus from two different locations in Europe range from being susceptible to JEV and capable of transmission through to being resistant. Culex quinquefasciatus also appears highly susceptible; therefore, both species could potentially act as vectors for JEV and facilitate the emergence of JEV into new regions. Graphical Abstract: Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2022, The Author(s)