425 research outputs found

    Impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2B6 phenotypes on the response to tramadol in patients with acute post‐surgical pain

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    Abstract Tramadol is an important minor opioid prescribed for pain management. In this study, we analyzed the well‐known impact of CYP2D6 genetic variation and 60 additional variants in eight candidate genes (i.e., ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A5, and CYP3A4) on tramadol efficacy and safety. Some 108 patients with pain after surgery admitted to a post‐anesthesia care unit (PACU) and prescribed tramadol were recruited. They were genotyped, and tramadol M1/M2 metabolite concentrations were determined by a newly validated HPLC‐MS/MS method. CYP2D6 intermediate (IM) and poor (PM) metabolizers showed lower M1 concentrations adjusted for dose/weight at 30 and 120 min compared to ultrarapid (UM) and normal (NM) metabolizers (univariate p < 0.001 and 0.020, multivariate p < 0.001 and 0.001, unstandardized ÎČ coefficients = 0.386 and 0.346, R2 = 0.146 and 0.120, respectively). CYP2B6 PMs (n = 10) were significantly related to a higher reduction in pain 30 min after tramadol intake (univariate p = 0.038, multivariate p = 0.016, unstandardized ÎČ coefficient = 0.224, R2 = 0.178), to lower PACU admission time (p = 0.007), and to lower incidence of adverse drug reactions (p = 0.038) compared to the other phenotypes. CYP3A4 IMs and PMs showed a higher prevalence of drowsiness and dizziness (p = 0.028 and 0.005, respectively). Our results suggest that the interaction of CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 phenotypes may be clinically relevant, pending validation of these results in large, independent cohorts. Additional research is required to clarify the impact of CYP3A4 genetic variation on tramadol response

    Early mobilisation in critically ill COVID-19 patients: a subanalysis of the ESICM-initiated UNITE-COVID observational study

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    Background Early mobilisation (EM) is an intervention that may improve the outcome of critically ill patients. There is limited data on EM in COVID-19 patients and its use during the first pandemic wave. Methods This is a pre-planned subanalysis of the ESICM UNITE-COVID, an international multicenter observational study involving critically ill COVID-19 patients in the ICU between February 15th and May 15th, 2020. We analysed variables associated with the initiation of EM (within 72 h of ICU admission) and explored the impact of EM on mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay, as well as discharge location. Statistical analyses were done using (generalised) linear mixed-effect models and ANOVAs. Results Mobilisation data from 4190 patients from 280 ICUs in 45 countries were analysed. 1114 (26.6%) of these patients received mobilisation within 72 h after ICU admission; 3076 (73.4%) did not. In our analysis of factors associated with EM, mechanical ventilation at admission (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.25, 0.35; p = 0.001), higher age (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98, 1.00; p ≀ 0.001), pre-existing asthma (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.73, 0.98; p = 0.028), and pre-existing kidney disease (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.71, 0.99; p = 0.036) were negatively associated with the initiation of EM. EM was associated with a higher chance of being discharged home (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.08, 1.58; p = 0.007) but was not associated with length of stay in ICU (adj. difference 0.91 days; 95% CI − 0.47, 1.37, p = 0.34) and hospital (adj. difference 1.4 days; 95% CI − 0.62, 2.35, p = 0.24) or mortality (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.7, 1.09, p = 0.24) when adjusted for covariates. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a quarter of COVID-19 patients received EM. There was no association found between EM in COVID-19 patients' ICU and hospital length of stay or mortality. However, EM in COVID-19 patients was associated with increased odds of being discharged home rather than to a care facility. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021)

    NAT2 phenotype alters pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban in healthy volunteers

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    Rivaroxaban is a direct inhibitor of factor Xa, a member of direct oral anticoagulant group of drugs (DOACs). Despite being a widely extended alternative to vitamin K antagonists (i.e., acenocoumarol, warfarin) the interindividual variability of DOACs is significant, and may be related to adverse drug reaction occurrence or drug inefficacy, namely hemorrhagic or thromboembolic events. Since there is not a consistent analytic practice to monitor the anticoagulant activity of DOACs, previously reported polymorphisms in genes coding for proteins responsible for the activation, transport, or metabolism of DOACs were studied. The study population comprised 60 healthy volunteers, who completed two randomized, crossover bioequivalence clinical trials between two different rivaroxaban formulations. The effect of food, sex, biogeographical origin and 55 variants (8 phenotypes and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms) in drug metabolizing enzyme genes (such as CYP2D6, CYP2C9, NAT2) and transporters (namely, ABCB1, ABCG2) on rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics was tested. Individuals dosed under fasting conditions presented lower tmax (2.21 h vs 2.88 h, ÎČ = 1.19, R2 =0.342, p = 0.012) compared to fed volunteers. NAT2 slow acetylators presented higher AUC∞ corrected by dose/weight (AUC∞/DW; 8243.90 vs 7698.20 and 7161.25 h*ng*mg /ml*kg, ÎČ = 0.154, R2 =0.250, p = 0.044), higher Cmax/DW (1070.99 vs 834.81 and 803.36 ng*mg /ml*kg, ÎČ = 0.245, R2 =0.320, p = 0.002), and lower tmax (2.63 vs 3.19 and 4.15 h, ÎČ = − 0.346, R2 =0.282, p = 0.047) than NAT2 rapid and intermediate acetylators. No other association was statistically significant. Thus, slow NAT2 appear to have altered rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics, increasing AUC∞ and Cmax. Nonetheless, further research should be conducted to verify NAT2 involvement on rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics and to determine its clinical significanceGonzalo Villapalos-GarcĂ­a was co-financed by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the European Social Fund (PFIS predoctoral grant, number FI20/00090). Marcos Navares-Gomez ÂŽ was financed by the ICI20/00131 grant, Accion ÂŽ EstratÂŽegica en Salud 2017–2020, ISCIII. Pablo Zubiaur is financed by Universidad Autonoma ÂŽ de Madrid, Margarita Salas contract, grants for the requalification of the Spanish university system. Paula Soria-Chacartegui is financed by Universidad Autonoma ÂŽ de Madrid (FPI-UAM, 2021). This study was co-financed by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) “A way of making Europe”, number PI19/0093

    Genetic variation in CYP2D6 and SLC22A1 affects amlodipine pharmacokinetics and safety

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    Amlodipine is an antihypertensive drug with unknown pharmacogenetic biomarkers. This research is a candidate gene study that looked for associations between amlodipine pharmacokinetics and safety and pharmacogenes. Pharmacokinetic and safety data were taken from 160 volunteers from eight bioequivalence trials. In the exploratory step, 70 volunteers were genotyped for 44 polymorphisms in different pharmacogenes. CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) showed higher half-life (t1/2) (univariate p-value (puv) = 0.039, multivariate p-value (pmv) = 0.013, ÎČ = −5.31, R2 = 0.176) compared to ultrarapid (UMs), normal (NMs) and intermediate metabolizers (IMs). SLC22A1 rs34059508 G/A genotype was associated with higher dose/weight-corrected area under the curve (AUC72/DW) (puv = 0.025; pmv = 0.026, ÎČ = 578.90, R2 = 0.060) compared to the G/G genotype. In the confirmatory step, the cohort was increased to 160 volunteers, who were genotyped for CYP2D6, SLC22A1 and CYP3A4. In addition to the previous associations, CYP2D6 UMs showed a lower AUC72/DW (puv = 0.046, pmv = 0.049, ÎČ = −68.80, R2 = 0.073) compared to NMs, IMs and PMs and the SLC22A1 rs34059508 G/A genotype was associated with thoracic pain (puv = 0.038) and dizziness (puv = 0.038, pmv = 0.014, log OR = 10.975). To our knowledge, this is the first work to report a strong relationship between amlodipine and CYP2D6 and SLC22A1. Further research is needed to gather more evidence before its application in clinical practic

    Rare predicted loss-of-function variants of type I IFN immunity genes are associated with life-threatening COVID-19

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    BackgroundWe previously reported that impaired type I IFN activity, due to inborn errors of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity or to autoantibodies against type I IFN, account for 15-20% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 in unvaccinated patients. Therefore, the determinants of life-threatening COVID-19 remain to be identified in similar to 80% of cases.MethodsWe report here a genome-wide rare variant burden association analysis in 3269 unvaccinated patients with life-threatening COVID-19, and 1373 unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals without pneumonia. Among the 928 patients tested for autoantibodies against type I IFN, a quarter (234) were positive and were excluded.ResultsNo gene reached genome-wide significance. Under a recessive model, the most significant gene with at-risk variants was TLR7, with an OR of 27.68 (95%CI 1.5-528.7, P=1.1x10(-4)) for biochemically loss-of-function (bLOF) variants. We replicated the enrichment in rare predicted LOF (pLOF) variants at 13 influenza susceptibility loci involved in TLR3-dependent type I IFN immunity (OR=3.70[95%CI 1.3-8.2], P=2.1x10(-4)). This enrichment was further strengthened by (1) adding the recently reported TYK2 and TLR7 COVID-19 loci, particularly under a recessive model (OR=19.65[95%CI 2.1-2635.4], P=3.4x10(-3)), and (2) considering as pLOF branchpoint variants with potentially strong impacts on splicing among the 15 loci (OR=4.40[9%CI 2.3-8.4], P=7.7x10(-8)). Finally, the patients with pLOF/bLOF variants at these 15 loci were significantly younger (mean age [SD]=43.3 [20.3] years) than the other patients (56.0 [17.3] years; P=1.68x10(-5)).ConclusionsRare variants of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I IFN immunity genes can underlie life-threatening COVID-19, particularly with recessive inheritance, in patients under 60 years old

    Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 viremia is associated with genetic variants of genes related to COVID-19 pathogenesis

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    IntroductionSARS-CoV-2 viral load has been related to COVID-19 severity. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viremia and SNPs in genes previously studied by our group as predictors of COVID-19 severity.Materials and methodsRetrospective observational study including 340 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the University Hospital La Princesa between March 2020 and December 2021, with at least one viremia determination. Positive viremia was considered when viral load was above the quantifiable threshold (20 copies/ml). A total of 38 SNPs were genotyped. To study their association with viremia a multivariate logistic regression was performed.ResultsThe mean age of the studied population was 64.5 years (SD 16.6), 60.9% patients were male and 79.4% white non-Hispanic. Only 126 patients (37.1%) had at least one positive viremia. After adjustment by confounders, the presence of the minor alleles of rs2071746 (HMOX1; T/T genotype OR 9.9 p &lt; 0.0001), rs78958998 (probably associated with SERPING1 expression; A/T genotype OR 2.3, p = 0.04 and T/T genotype OR 12.9, p &lt; 0.0001), and rs713400 (eQTL for TMPRSS2; C/T + T/T genotype OR 1.86, p = 0.10) were associated with higher risk of viremia, whereas the minor alleles of rs11052877 (CD69; A/G genotype OR 0.5, p = 0.04 and G/G genotype OR 0.3, p = 0.01), rs2660 (OAS1; A/G genotype OR 0.6, p = 0.08), rs896 (VIPR1; T/T genotype OR 0.4, p = 0.02) and rs33980500 (TRAF3IP2; C/T + T/T genotype OR 0.3, p = 0.01) were associated with lower risk of viremia.ConclusionGenetic variants in HMOX1 (rs2071746), SERPING1 (rs78958998), TMPRSS2 (rs713400), CD69 (rs11052877), TRAF3IP2 (rs33980500), OAS1 (rs2660) and VIPR1 (rs896) could explain heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 viremia in our population

    Alternative Pharmacokinetic Metrics in Single-Dose Studies to Ensure Bioequivalence of Prolonged-Release Products at Steady State—A Case Study

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    (1) Background: this article investigates which PK metrics in a single-dose study (concentration at the end of posology interval, Cτ, partial areas under the curve, pAUCs, or half-value duration, HVD) are more sensitive and less variable for predicting the failure of a prolonged-release product at steady-state that was the bioequivalent for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf, in the single-dose study; (2) Methods: a cross-over study was performed in 36 subjects receiving desvenlafaxine 100 mg prolonged-release tablets. Conventional (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf) and additional (Cτ, pAUCs and HVD) PK metrics were considered after single-dose conditions. Predicted PK metrics at steady state (AUC0-τ, Cmax,ss, and Cτ,ss) were derived using a population PK model approach; (3) Results: the existing differences in the shape of the concentration–time curves precluded to show equivalence for Cτ,ss in the simulated study at steady state. This failure to show equivalence at steady state was predicted by Cτ, pAUCs and HVD in the single-dose study. Cτ was the most sensitive metric for detecting the different shape, with a lower intra-subject variability than HVD; (4) Conclusions: conventional PK metrics for single-dose studies (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf) are not enough to guarantee bioequivalence at steady state for prolonged-release products

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries