10 research outputs found

    Fostering Clinical and Academic Faculty Collaborations to Improve Graduate Education

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    Accredited graduate programs in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) work to integrate academic coursework, a breadth of clinical experiences, and an overarching capstone project (e.g. summative assessment). The best graduate programs focus on integrating these three elements through high quality collaborations between academic and clinical faculty. These collaborations are fostered when clinical and academic faculty attempt to provide students with experiences that intersect academic, research, and clinical areas of speech language pathology. The purpose of this paper describes the collaborative efforts undertaken by the CSD department at the Pennsylvania State University. We present a model for collaborations in graduate education and discuss examples of our current integrative projects

    Preliminary Development Of A Screening Tool For Pre-Clinical Dysphagia In Community Dwelling Older Adults

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    Evidence suggests that community dwelling older adults (CDOA) are at risk for dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). Dysphagia is often unidentified until related morbidities like under nutrition or pneumonia occur. These cases of unidentified dysphagia, prior to any clinical intervention, may be termed \u27pre-clinical dysphagia\u27. Identifying pre-clinical dysphagia is challenged by the lack of validated tools appropriate for CDOA. This study addresses preliminary development of a novel patient reported outcome (PRO) screening tool for pre-clinical dysphagia. Initially, 34 questions were developed from literature review and expert opinion. Following pilot testing (n = 53), the questionnaire was revised and tested on 335 additional CDOA. Face validity, content validity, item analysis, reliability (internal consistency), and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) measures were completed. Psychometric validation resulted in a 17-question PRO tool. Construct analysis identified a three-factor model that explained 67.345% of the variance. Emergent factors represented swallowing effort, physical function, and cognitive function. The results revealed strong construct validity and internal consistency (Cronbach\u27s ‚ąĚ = 0.90). A novel, simple PRO incorporating multiple function domains associated with aging demonstrated strong preliminary psychometric properties. This tool is more comprehensive and aging-focused than existing dysphagia screening tools. Inclusion of multiple domains may be key in early identification of pre-clinical dysphagia

    Preliminary Development of a Screening Tool for Pre-Clinical Dysphagia in Community Dwelling Older Adults

    No full text
    Evidence suggests that community dwelling older adults (CDOA) are at risk for dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). Dysphagia is often unidentified until related morbidities like under nutrition or pneumonia occur. These cases of unidentified dysphagia, prior to any clinical intervention, may be termed ‘pre-clinical dysphagia’. Identifying pre-clinical dysphagia is challenged by the lack of validated tools appropriate for CDOA. This study addresses preliminary development of a novel patient reported outcome (PRO) screening tool for pre-clinical dysphagia. Initially, 34 questions were developed from literature review and expert opinion. Following pilot testing (n = 53), the questionnaire was revised and tested on 335 additional CDOA. Face validity, content validity, item analysis, reliability (internal consistency), and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) measures were completed. Psychometric validation resulted in a 17-question PRO tool. Construct analysis identified a three-factor model that explained 67.345% of the variance. Emergent factors represented swallowing effort, physical function, and cognitive function. The results revealed strong construct validity and internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90). A novel, simple PRO incorporating multiple function domains associated with aging demonstrated strong preliminary psychometric properties. This tool is more comprehensive and aging-focused than existing dysphagia screening tools. Inclusion of multiple domains may be key in early identification of pre-clinical dysphagia

    Dysphagia And Oral Morbidities In Chemoradiation-Treated Head And Neck Cancer Patients

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    This study prospectively evaluated relationships between oral morbidities and swallowing ability in head/neck cancer patients following chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and at 3 months following CRT. Thirty patients with confirmed head/neck cancer undergoing chemoradiation were assessed with a battery of swallowing measures and measures of oral morbidities related to chemoradiation (xerostomia, mucositis, pain, taste/smell, oral moisture). All measures were completed at baseline (within the first week of CRT), at 6 weeks (end of treatment), and at 3 months following chemoradiation. Descriptive and univariate statistics were used to depict change over time in swallowing and each oral morbidity. Correlation analyses evaluated relationships between swallowing function and oral morbidities at each time point. Most measures demonstrated significant negative change at 6 weeks with incomplete recovery at 3 months. At 6 weeks, mucositis ratings, xerostomia, and retronasal smell intensity demonstrated significant inverse relationships with swallowing function. In addition, oral moisture levels demonstrated significant positive relationships with swallowing function. At 3 months, mucositis ratings maintained a significant, inverse relationship with swallow function. Taste and both orthonasal and retronasal smell intensity ratings demonstrated inverse relationships with measures of swallow function. Swallow functions and oral morbidities deteriorate significantly following CRT with incomplete recovery at 3 months post treatment. Furthermore, different patterns of relationships between swallow function measures and oral morbidities were obtained at the 6-week versus the 3-month assessment point suggesting that different mechanisms may contribute to the development versus the maintenance of dysphagia over the trajectory of treatment in these patients

    Prevalence Of And Risk Factors For Dysphagia In The Community Dwelling Elderly: A Systematic Review

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    Objectives: This review clarifies current information regarding the prevalence of and risk factors associated with dysphagia (swallowing disorders) in the community dwelling elderly (CDE). A better understanding of prevalence and characteristics of dysphagia in the CDE will help to determine the scope of this problem. Understanding the scope of dysphagia is a critical first step towards early identification, management, and prevention of dysphagia related morbidities in the CDE. Methods: Studies identified from multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE (Pubmed), PsychInfo, Google Scholar, EBSCO, PROQUEST, Web of Science and WorldCat dissertations and theses) evaluating prevalence and risk factors for dysphagia in the CDE were reviewed. Data from all eligible studies were abstracted by the first author and independently reviewed by two raters, using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Results: 15 studies (n = 9947 participants) were eligible for inclusion. Studies included were all observational: 14 cross-sectional and 1 prospective cohort. Significant heterogeneity was observed in methodology among studies of dysphagia in the CDE. The average NOS study quality rating was 4.54 points (SD: 0.9), with a mode of 4 points (range 3-6). Only 6 of the 15 studies were identified as high quality research studies, with a mean of 5.33 points (SD: 0.47). Among reviewed studies, the prevalence of swallowing difficulty in the CDE ranged from 5% to 72%. However, the average prevalence of dysphagia estimated from the 6 high quality studies was 15%. Reported risk factors associated with dysphagia include advancing age; history of clinical disease; and physical frailty, including reduced ability to carry out activities of daily living. Conclusion: Research on dysphagia in CDE is modest and consists mostly of observational studies with diverse methodology. However, prevalence rate of 15% from the high quality research suggests a significant public health impact of this impairment. Identification of specific risk factors that cause dysphagia in the CDE is premature, given the rigor of published studies. Future research efforts should focus on developing a valid definition and assessment of dysphagia in this population before clarifying causative risk factors

    HIV infection and drugs of abuse: role of acute phase proteins

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    Background HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Methods Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, and HIV-positive alone and HIV-positive METH, cocaine, and alcohol users, and age-matched control subjects. The plasma CRP and SAA levels were measured by ELISA and western blot respectively and the CD4 counts were also measured. Results Observed results indicated that the CRP and SAA levels in HIV-positive subjects who are METH, cocaine and alcohol users were significantly higher when compared with either drugs of abuse or HIV-positive alone. The CD4 counts were also dramatically reduced in HIV-positive with drugs of abuse subjects compared with only HIV-positive subjects. Conclusions These results suggest that, in HIV-positive subjects, drugs of abuse increase the levels of CRP and SAA, which may impact on the HIV infection and disease progression

    phase proteins

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    HIV infection and drugs of abuse: role of acut
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